Veröffentlichungen des FG-Kraftfahrzeugtechnik

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Ricciardi, Vincenzo;
Advanced control functions of automotive brake systems for the optimisation of braking performance, brake wear and particle emissions. - Ilmenau : Universitätsbibliothek, 2021. - 1 Online-Ressource (xi, 179 Seiten).
Technische Universität Ilmenau, Dissertation 2021

In den letzten Jahrzehnten wurden Fahrzeuge einem tiefgreifenden Einfluss auf die Anforderungen an Sicherheit, Komfort und Umweltfreundlichkeit ausgesetzt. Heutzutage hat der starke Trend zur Umwandlung traditioneller Fahrzeuge in komplexe Systeme und die ständig steigende Anzahl von Elektro- und Elektronikkomponenten die Industrie dazu gezwungen, neue Regelmethoden und deren Entwicklungsprozesse zu entwerfen. Die Optimierung der Bremsverteilung in elektrischen Antrieben mit Brake-by-Wire-Systemen erfordert die Entwicklung fortgeschrittener Schätzfunktionen. Darüber hinaus fördern die Trends zu strengeren Abgasvorschriften und das nachgewiesene Wachstum der Fahrzeugzulassungen den Bedarf an neuen Anwendungen, die die Hersteller über die Umweltfreundlichkeit ihrer Fahrzeugflotte informieren. In diesem Rahmen werden in der vorliegenden Arbeit Steuerungs- und Schätzlösungen für emissionsarme, multi-aktuierte Fahrzeuge vorgestellt, um die Bremsleistung bei gleichzeitiger Überwachung des Bremsverschleißes und der bremsbedingten Partikelemissionen zu verbessern. Die Erreichung dieses Ziels führt zu interdisziplinären Methoden, die von Fortschritten bei numerischen Modellierungs- und Simulationswerkzeugen über die Anwendung innovativer experimenteller und sensorischer Fusionstechniken bis hin zur Entwicklung und Verifizierung neuartiger Algorithmen zur Zustandsschätzung und -steuerung reichen. Die Entwicklung von Steuerungs- und Schätzfunktionen wird durch Modell-, Software- und Hardware-in-the-Loop-Techniken unterstützt, die durch ein neuartiges, an der Technischen Universität Ilmenau entwickeltes Scheibenbremsmodell verbessert werden. Auf dem Prüfgelände durchgeführte Experimente zeigen, dass die Bremsleistung in Brake-by-Wire-Systemen durch Kompensation unerwünschter Schwankungen des Bremsreibungskoeffizienten verbessert werden kann. Die Kompensationsfunktion bietet dem Fahrer eine Bremsservounterstützung, wenn die erforderliche Verzögerung nicht zu erreichen ist. In Hybrid- und Vollelektrofahrzeugen verbessert die Bremsreibungskompensation das Blending mit Elektromotoren, indem eine bessere Verfolgung der Referenzverzögerung sichergestellt wird. Außerdem ermöglicht die Schätzung des Bremsreibungskoeffizienten zusätzliche Bremsüberwachungsfunktionen. Durch neuartige Design-of-Experiments und Data-Mining-Verfahren werden die relevanten Einflüsse auf den Bremsverschleiß und die Partikelbildung erfasst. Die experimentellen Beweise treiben die Implementierung und Identifizierung fortschrittlicher Schätzverfahren voran, die früheren Schätzverfahren überlegen sind. Die vorgeschlagenen Kontroll- und Schätzfunktionen weisen im Vergleich zu anderen Ansätzen nach dem jüngsten Stand der Technik eine höhere Leistung unter realen Fahrbedingungen aus.



https://doi.org/10.22032/dbt.49391
Žuraulis, Vidas; Sivilevičius, Henrikas; Šabanovič, Eldar; Ivanov, Valentin; Skrickij, Viktor;
Variability of gravel pavement roughness: an analysis of the impact on vehicle dynamic response and driving comfort. - In: Applied Sciences : open access journal.. - Basel : MDPI, ISSN 2076-3417, Bd. 11 (2021), 16, S. 1-18

Gravel pavement has lower construction costs but poorer performance than asphalt surfaces on roads. It also emits dust and deforms under the impact of vehicle loads and ambient air factors; the resulting ripples and ruts constantly deepen, and therefore increase vehicle vibrations and fuel consumption, and reduce safe driving speed and comfort. In this study, existing pavement quality evaluation indexes are analysed, and a methodology for adapting them for roads with gravel pavement is proposed. We report the measured wave depth and length of gravel pavement profile using the straightedge method on a 160 m long road section at three stages of road utilization. The measured pavement elevation was processed according to ISO 8608, and the frequency response of a vehicle was investigated using simulations in MATLAB/Simulink. The international roughness index (IRI) analysis showed that a speed of 30-45 km/h instead of 80 km/h provided the objective results of the IRI calculation on the flexible pavement due to the decreasing velocity of a vehicles unsprung mass on a more deteriorated road pavement state. The influence of the corrugation phenomenon of gravel pavement was explored, identifying specific driving safety and comfort cases. Finally, an increase in the dynamic load coefficient (DLC) at a low speed of 30 km/h on the most deteriorated pavement and a high speed of 90 km/h on the middle-quality pavement demonstrated the demand for timely gravel pavement maintenance and the complicated prediction of a safe driving speed for drivers. The main relevant objectives of this study are the adaptation of a road roughness indicator to gravel pavement, including the evaluation of vehicle dynamic responses at different speeds and pavement deterioration states.



https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167582
Ivanov, Valentin; Lv, Chen; Boulon, Loic; Hu, Xiaosong; Ongel, Aybike;
Guest editorial: Focused section on mechatronics in road mobility systems. - In: IEEE ASME transactions on mechatronics : a joint publication of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society and the ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Division.. - New York, NY : IEEE, ISSN 1941-014X, Bd. 26 (2021), 3, S. 1195-1200

The road mobility system is undergoing a paradigm shift towards more sustainable, efficient, safer and smarter transportation. In this context, mechatronic systems requires an ever increasing combination of mechanical, electrical/electronic, control and information disciplines. In addition, emerging smart technologies, including artificial intelligence, cybernetics, internet of things, as well as high-performance computing and control, are changing the way in which road mobility systems interact with the society. Thus, future mobility becomes highly multidisciplinary and requires novel technologies and approaches of mechatronic systems to further improve its safety, sustainability and smartness. Within this context, the main goal of this Focused Section is to compile recent research and development efforts contributing to advances in mechatronics for road mobility systems.



https://doi.org/10.1109/TMECH.2021.3080932
Armengaud, Eric; Eitzinger, Stefan; Pirker, Hannes; Buh, Joze; Gramstat, Sebastian; Heimann, Stefan; Chen, Chiara; Ivanov, Valentin; Heydrich, Marius; Sorniotti, Aldo; Gruber, Patrick; Tavernini, Davide;
E-mobility-opportunities and challenges of integrated corner solutions. - In: SAE technical papers. - Warrendale, Pa. : Soc., ISSN 2688-3627, (2021), SAE technical paper 2021-01-0984, Seite 1-11

https://doi.org/10.4271/2021-01-0984
Lehne, Christoph; Augsburg, Klaus; Ricciardi, Vincenzo; Büchner, Florian; Schreiber, Viktor;
Fail-safe study on brake blending control. - In: SAE technical papers. - Warrendale, Pa. : Soc., ISSN 2688-3627, (2021), SAE technical paper 2021-01-0983, Seite 1-8

https://doi.org/10.4271/2021-01-0983
Viehweger, Marco; Vaseur, Cyrano; Aalst, Sebastiaan; Acosta, Manuel; Regolin, Enrico; Alatorre, Angel; Desmet, Wim; Naets, Frank; Ivanov, Valentin; Ferrara, Antonella; Victorino, Alessandro;
Vehicle state and tyre force estimation : demonstrations and guidelines. - In: Vehicle system dynamics : international journal of vehicle mechanics and mobility.. - London [u.a.] : Taylor & Francis, ISSN 1744-5159, Bd. 59 (2021), 5, S. 675-702

This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the application of different techniques for vehicle state and tyre force estimation using the same experimental data and vehicle models, except for the tyre models. Four schemes are demonstrated: (i) an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) scheme using a linear tyre model with stochastically adapted cornering stiffness, (ii) an EKF scheme using a Neural Network (NN) data-driven linear tyre model, (iii) a tyre model-less Suboptimal-Second Order Sliding Mode (S-SOSM) scheme, and (iv) a Kinematic Model (KM) scheme integrated in an EKF. The estimation accuracy of each method is discussed. Moreover, guidelines for each method provide potential users with valuable insight into key properties and points of attention.



https://doi.org/10.1080/00423114.2020.1714672
Herzog, Ludwig; Augsburg, Klaus;
Study on friction in automotive shock absorbers, part 2: Validation of friction simulations via novel single friction point test rigs. - In: Vehicles. - Basel : MDPI AG, ISSN 2624-8921, Bd. 3 (2021), 2, S. 197-211

https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles3020013
Mamakos, Athanasios; Kolbeck, Katharina; Arndt, Michael; Schröder, Thomas; Bernhard, Matthias;
Particle emissions and disc temperature profiles from a commercial brake system tested on a dynamometer under real-world cycles. - In: Atmosphere. - Basel, Switzerland : MDPI AG, ISSN 2073-4433, Bd. 12 (2021), 3, S. 1-20

The particle emissions from a commercial brake system utilizing copper-free pads have been characterized on a brake dynamometer under two real-world driving cycles. These included a novel cycle developed from analysis of the database of the World Harmonized Test Procedure (WLTP-Brake) and a short version of the Los Angeles City Traffic cycle (3h-LACT) developed in the framework of the European LowBraSys project. Disc temperature measurements using an array of embedded thermocouples revealed a large temporal and spatial non-uniformity with the radial temperature distribution depending also on the test procedure. Averaging over the duration of the cycle, it effectively reduced the influence of thermocouple positioning, allowing for more reliable quantification of the effectiveness of convective cooling. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were similar for both cycles with PM2.5 averaging at 2.2 (±0.2) mg/km over the WLTP-Brake and 2.2 (±0.2) mg/km over the 3h-LACT, respectively. The corresponding PM10 emissions were 5.6 (±0.2) mg/km and 8.6 (±0.7) mg/km, respectively. The measurements revealed the formation of nanosized particles peaking at 10 nm, which were thermally stable at 350 ˚C under both cycles. Volatile nanoparticles were observed over the more demanding 3h-LACT cycle, with their emission rates decreasing with increasing the tunnel flow, suggesting nucleation of organic vapors released during braking as a potential formation process.



https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030377
Yu, Chuanyang; Zheng, Yanggu; Shyrokau, Barys; Ivanov, Valentin;
MPC-based path following design for automated vehicles with rear wheel steering. - In: 2021 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics (ICM). - [Piscataway, NJ] : IEEE, (2021), insges. 6 S.

Many studies have been recently exploited to discuss the path following control algorithms for automated vehicles using various control techniques. However, path following algorithm considering the possibility of automated vehicles with rear wheel steering (RWS) is still less investigated. In this study, we implemented nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) on a passenger vehicle with active RWS for path following. The controller was compared to two other variations of NMPC where the rear steering angle is proportional to the front or fixed to zero. Simulation results suggested that the proposed controller outperforms the other two variations and the baseline controllers (Stanley and LQR) in terms of accuracy and responsiveness.



https://doi.org/10.1109/ICM46511.2021.9385606