Testing of alternative disc brakes and friction materials regarding brake wear particle emissions and temperature behavior. - In: Atmosphere. - Basel, Switzerland : MDPI AG, ISSN 2073-4433, Bd. 12 (2021), 4, S. 1-23
In this study, different disc brakes and friction materials are evaluated with respect to particle emission output and characteristic features are derived. The measurements take place on an inertia dynamometer using a constant volume sampling system. Brake wear particle emission factors of different disc concepts in different sizes are determined and compared, using a grey cast iron disc, a tungsten carbide-coated disc and a carbon ceramic disc. The brakes were tested over a section (trip #10) novel test cycle developed from the database of the worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). First, brake emission factors were determined along the bedding process using a series of trip-10 tests. The tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. In addition to number- and mass-related emission factors (PM2.5-PM10), the particle size distribution was determined. Another focus was the evaluation of temperature ranges and the associated challenges in the use of temperature readings in a potential regulation of brake wear particle emissions. The results illustrate the challenges associated with establishing a universal bedding procedure and using disc temperature measurements for the control of a representative braking procedure. Using tungsten carbide coated discs and carbon ceramic discs, emission reduction potentials of up to 70% (PM10) could be demonstrated along the WLTP brake cycle. The reduction potential is primarily the result of the high wear resistance of the disc, but is additionally influenced by the pad composition and the temperature in the friction contact area.
Integrated braking control for electric vehicles with in-wheel propulsion and fully decoupled brake-by-wire system. - In: Vehicles. - Basel : MDPI AG, ISSN 2624-8921, Bd. 3 (2021), 2, S. 145-161
Hardware-in-the-loop test of an open-loop fuzzy control method for decoupled electrohydraulic antilock braking system. - In: IEEE transactions on fuzzy systems : a publication of the IEEE Neural Networks Council.. - New York, NY : Inst., ISSN 1941-0034, Bd. 29 (2021), 5, S. 965-975
Brake particle movement inside the frictional system and influencing parameters. - Stansted, Essex : FISITA. - 1 Online-Ressource (1 Seiten). - Publikation entstand im Rahmen der Veranstaltung: EuroBrake 2020, EB2020-EBS-010
Artificial neural network regression models for the prediction of brake-related emissions. - Stansted, Essex : FISITA. - 1 Online-Ressource (1 Seite). - Publikation entstand im Rahmen der Veranstaltung: EuroBrake 2020, EB2020-STP-050
Measurement of vehicle related non-exhaust particle emissions under real driving conditions. - Stansted, Essex : FISITA. - 1 Online-Ressource (1 Seite). - Publikation entstand im Rahmen der Veranstaltung: EuroBrake 2020, EB2020-STP-039
Novel developing environment for automated and electrified vehicles using remote and distributed X-in-the-Loop technique. - In: 2020 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC) : proceedings : 18 November-16 December 2020, virtual conference.. - Piscataway, NJ : IEEE, (2020), insges. 5 S.
This paper contributes to an approach for integrated development, optimization and scientific investigation of coupled systems. The focus here is on real-time networking of test fields with model-based development environments.
Ride blending control for AWD electric vehicle with in-wheel motors and electromagnetic suspension. - In: 2020 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC) : proceedings : 18 November-16 December 2020, virtual conference.. - Piscataway, NJ : IEEE, (2020), insges. 5 S.
This paper presents a controller for enhancing the ride comfort of electric vehicles with in-wheel motors (IWM) and electromagnetic suspensions (AS). The combined use of IWMs and AS to increase the ride comfort is referred to as Ride Blending (RB). The purpose of this integrated control, its general idea and concept are discussed. The Ride Blending controller is based on a multi-layer hierarchical control architecture. To continuously allocate the demand between the actuators, the control makes use of a cost function optimisation where the ideal control parameters for the current time step are defined. The goal of each component of this function is explained and the structure of each one is described. The use of the ride blending control is then demonstrated on various driving manoeuvres to show the functionality and the ride quality improvement.
Robust design of combined control strategy for electric vehicle with in-wheel propulsion. - In: 2020 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC) : proceedings : 18 November-16 December 2020, virtual conference.. - Piscataway, NJ : IEEE, (2020), insges. 6 S.
This paper introduces a control strategy for battery electric Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) with the rear wheel drive and the decoupled braking system with electro-hydraulic actuation on the front axle and electro-mechanical actuation on the rear axle. The control architecture includes anti-lock braking system (ABS) and traction control (TC) with additional features as the brake blending for improved energy recuperation. The ABS/TC functions are based on the wheel slip controller realized with Proportional-Integral (PI) and Integral Sliding Mode (ISM) strategies, which are benchmarked in the presented study. The control structure also includes modules for estimation of road slope and vehicle mass allocation via Recursive Least Squares (RLS) algorithm.
Blended antilock braking system control method for all-wheel drive electric sport utility vehicle. - In: ELECTRIMACS 2019 : selected papers - volume 1.. - Cham : Springer International Publishing, (2020), S. 229-241
At least two different actuators work in cooperation in regenerative braking for electric and hybrid vehicles. Torque blending is an important area, which is responsible for better manoeuvrability, reduced braking distance, improved riding comfort, etc. In this paper, a control method for electric vehicle blended antilock braking system based on fuzzy logic is promoted. The principle prioritizes usage of electric motor actuators to maximize recuperation energy during deceleration process. Moreover, for supreme efficiency it considers the battery's state of charge for switching between electric motor and conventional electrohydraulic brakes. To demonstrate the functionality of the controller under changing dynamic conditions, a hardware-in-the-loop simulation with real electrohydraulic brakes test bed is utilized. In particular, the experiment is designed to exceed the state-of-charge threshold during braking operation, what leads to immediate switch between regenerative and friction brake modes.