Tip- and laser-based 3D nanofabrication in extended macroscopic working areas. - In: Nanomanufacturing and metrology, ISSN 2520-8128, Bd. 4 (2021), 3, S. 132-148
The field of optical lithography is subject to intense research and has gained enormous improvement. However, the effort necessary for creating structures at the size of 20 nm and below is considerable using conventional technologies. This effort and the resulting financial requirements can only be tackled by few global companies and thus a paradigm change for the semiconductor industry is conceivable: custom design and solutions for specific applications will dominate future development (Fritze in: Panning EM, Liddle JA (eds) Novel patterning technologies. International society for optics and photonics. SPIE, Bellingham, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2593229). For this reason, new aspects arise for future lithography, which is why enormous effort has been directed to the development of alternative fabrication technologies. Yet, the technologies emerging from this process, which are promising for coping with the current resolution and accuracy challenges, are only demonstrated as a proof-of-concept on a lab scale of several square micrometers. Such scale is not adequate for the requirements of modern lithography; therefore, there is the need for new and alternative cross-scale solutions to further advance the possibilities of unconventional nanotechnologies. Similar challenges arise because of the technical progress in various other fields, realizing new and unique functionalities based on nanoscale effects, e.g., in nanophotonics, quantum computing, energy harvesting, and life sciences. Experimental platforms for basic research in the field of scale-spanning nanomeasuring and nanofabrication are necessary for these tasks, which are available at the Technische Universität Ilmenau in the form of nanopositioning and nanomeasuring (NPM) machines. With this equipment, the limits of technical structurability are explored for high-performance tip-based and laser-based processes for enabling real 3D nanofabrication with the highest precision in an adequate working range of several thousand cubic millimeters.
A steepest descent method for set optimization problems with set-valued mappings of finite cardinality. - In: Journal of optimization theory and applications, ISSN 1573-2878, Bd. 190 (2021), 3, S. 711-743
In this paper, we study a first-order solution method for a particular class of set optimization problems where the solution concept is given by the set approach. We consider the case in which the set-valued objective mapping is identified by a finite number of continuously differentiable selections. The corresponding set optimization problem is then equivalent to find optimistic solutions to vector optimization problems under uncertainty with a finite uncertainty set. We develop optimality conditions for these types of problems and introduce two concepts of critical points. Furthermore, we propose a descent method and provide a convergence result to points satisfying the optimality conditions previously derived. Some numerical examples illustrating the performance of the method are also discussed. This paper is a modified and polished version of Chapter 5 in the dissertation by Quintana (On set optimization with set relations: a scalarization approach to optimality conditions and algorithms, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 2020).
Automatic segmentation of skin cells in multiphoton data using multi-stage merging. - In: Scientific reports, ISSN 2045-2322, Bd. 11 (2021), 14534, insges. 19 S.
We propose a novel automatic segmentation algorithm that separates the components of human skin cells from the rest of the tissue in fluorescence data of three-dimensional scans using non-invasive multiphoton tomography. The algorithm encompasses a multi-stage merging on preprocessed superpixel images to ensure independence from a single empirical global threshold. This leads to a high robustness of the segmentation considering the depth-dependent data characteristics, which include variable contrasts and cell sizes. The subsequent classification of cell cytoplasm and nuclei are based on a cell model described by a set of four features. Two novel features, a relationship between outer cell and inner nucleus (OCIN) and a stability index, were derived. The OCIN feature describes the topology of the model, while the stability index indicates segment quality in the multi-stage merging process. These two new features, combined with the local gradient magnitude and compactness, are used for the model-based fuzzy evaluation of the cell segments. We exemplify our approach on an image stack with 200 × 200 × 100 [my]m^3, including the skin layers of the stratum spinosum and the stratum basale of a healthy volunteer. Our image processing pipeline contributes to the fully automated classification of human skin cells in multiphoton data and provides a basis for the detection of skin cancer using non-invasive optical biopsy.
Microfluidically supported characterization of responses of Rhodococcus erythropolis strains isolated from different soils on Cu-, Ni-, and Co-stress. - In: Brazilian journal of microbiology, ISSN 1678-4405, Bd. 52 (2021), 3, S. 1405-1415
We present a new methodological approach for the assessment of the susceptibility of Rhodococcus erythropolis strains from specific sampling sites in response to increasing heavy metal concentration (Cu2+, Ni2+, and Co2+) using the droplet-based microfluid technique. All isolates belong to the species R. erythropolis identified by Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA. The tiny step-wise variation of metal concentrations from zero to the lower mM range in 500 nL droplets not only provided accurate data for critical metal ion concentrations but also resulted in a detailed visualization of the concentration-dependent response of bacterial growth and autofluorescence activity. As a result, some of the isolates showed similar characteristics in heavy metal tolerance against Cu2+, Ni2+, and Co2+. However, significantly different heavy metal tolerances were found for other strains. Surprisingly, samples from the surface soil of ancient copper mining areas supplied mostly strains with a moderate sensitivity to Cu2+, Ni2+, and Co2+, but in contrast, a soil sample from an excavation site of a medieval city that had been covered for about eight centuries showed an extremely high tolerance against cobalt ion (up to 36 mM). The differences among the strains not only may be regarded as results of adaptation to the different environmental conditions faced by the strains in nature but also seem to be related to ancient human activities and temporal partial decoupling of soil elements from the surface. This investigation confirmed that microfluidic screening offers empirical characterization of properties from same species which has been isolated from sites known to have different human activities in the past.
Directed energy deposition-arc (DED-Arc) and numerical welding simulation as a hybrid data source for future machine learning applications. - In: Applied Sciences, ISSN 2076-3417, Bd. 11 (2021), 15, 7075, insges. 16 S.
This research presents a hybrid approach to generate sample data for future machine learning applications for the prediction of mechanical properties in directed energy deposition-arc (DED-Arc) using the GMAW process. DED-Arc is an additive manufacturing process which offers a cost-effective way to generate 3D metal parts, due to its high deposition rate of up to 8 kg/h. The mechanical properties additively manufactured wall structures made of the filler material G4Si1 (ER70 S-6) are shown in dependency of the t8/5 cooling time. The numerical simulation is used to link the process parameters and geometrical features to a specific t8/5 cooling time. With an input of average welding power, welding speed and geometrical features such as wall thickness, layer height and heat source size a specific temperature field can be calculated for each iteration in the simulated welding process. This novel approach allows to generate large, artificial data sets as training data for machine learning methods by combining experimental results to generate a regression equation based on the experimentally measured t8/5 cooling time. Therefore, using the regression equations in combination with numerically calculated t8/5 cooling times an accurate prediction of the mechanical properties was possible in this research with an error of only 2.6%. Thus, a small set of experimentally generated data set allows to achieve regression equations which enable a precise prediction of mechanical properties. Moreover, the validated numerical welding simulation model was suitable to achieve an accurate calculation of the t8/5 cooling time, with an error of only 0.3%.
Using the multi-linear rank-(Lr, Lr, 1) decomposition for the detection of the 200 Hz band activity in somatosensory evoked magnetic fields and somatosensory evoked electrical potentials. - In: IEEE access, ISSN 2169-3536, Bd. 9 (2021), S. 106232-106244
Im Titel ist "r" tiefgestellt
Determination of piezo-resistive coefficient π44 in p-type silicon by comparing simulation and measurement of pressure sensors. - In: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, Bd. 11 (2021), 8, 085005, insges. 6 S.
SmartPIV: flow velocity estimates by smartphones for education and field studies. - In: Experiments in fluids, ISSN 1432-1114, Bd. 62 (2021), 8, 172, insges. 13 S.
In this paper, a smartphone application is presented that was developed to lower the barrier to introduce particle image velocimetry (PIV) in lab courses. The first benefit is that a PIV system using smartphones and a continuous wave (cw-) laser is much cheaper than a conventional system and thus much more affordable for universities. The second benefit is that the design of the menus follows that of modern camera apps, which are intuitively used. Thus, the system is much less complex and costly than typical systems, and our experience showed that students have much less reservations to work with the system and to try different parameters. Last but not least the app can be applied in the field. The relative uncertainty was shown to be less than 8%, which is reasonable for quick velocity estimates. An analysis of the computational time necessary for the data evaluation showed that with the current implementation the app is capable of providing smooth live display vector fields of the flow. This might further increase the use of modern measurement techniques in industry and education.
Vehicle classification in intelligent transport systems: an overview, methods and software perspective. - In: IEEE open journal of intelligent transportation systems, ISSN 2687-7813, Bd. 2 (2021), S. 173-194
A note on uniquely 10-colorable graphs. - In: Journal of graph theory, ISSN 1097-0118, Bd. 98 (2021), 1, S. 24-26
Hadwiger conjectured that every graph of chromatic number k admits a clique minor of order k. Here we prove for k ≤ 10, that every graph of chromatic number k with a unique k-coloring (up to the color names) admits a clique minor of order k. The proof does not rely on the Four Color Theorem.