Vehicle classification in intelligent transport systems: an overview, methods and software perspective. - In: IEEE open journal of intelligent transportation systems, ISSN 2687-7813, Bd. 2 (2021), S. 173-194
A note on uniquely 10-colorable graphs. - In: Journal of graph theory, ISSN 1097-0118, Bd. 98 (2021), 1, S. 24-26
Hadwiger conjectured that every graph of chromatic number k admits a clique minor of order k. Here we prove for k ≤ 10, that every graph of chromatic number k with a unique k-coloring (up to the color names) admits a clique minor of order k. The proof does not rely on the Four Color Theorem.
Rational climate policy - economic demands and political obstacles :
Rationale Klimapolitik - ökonomische Anforderungen und politische Hindernisse. - In: List Forum für Wirtschafts- und Finanzpolitik, ISSN 2364-3943, Bd. 46 (2021), 4, S. 423-449
In der klimapolitischen Debatte stehen meist einzelne Instrumente und Maßnahmen im Vordergrund, wohingegen die Frage der ökonomischen Rationalität der Klimapolitik als solcher häufig vernachlässigt wird. Eine Klimapolitik wäre dann ökonomisch rational, wenn politisch vorgegebene Klimaziele mit geringstmöglichen Kosten realisiert werden würden. Notwendig hierfür ist eine umfassende und einheitliche Bepreisung der Treibhausgasemissionen. Dieser rationalen Klimapolitik wird die aktuelle deutsche und europäische Politik gegenübergestellt, die sich als ineffektiv und ineffizient erweist. Ursächlich hierfür sind die Anreize, denen die politischen Akteure unterliegen und die zu einem Widerspruch zwischen ökonomischer Rationalität und politischer Opportunität führen.
Formation and evolution of Au-SiOx heterostructures: from nanoflowers to nanosprouts. - In: Materials and design, ISSN 1873-4197, Bd. 209 (2021), 109956, insges. 11 S.
Im Titel ist "x" tiefgestellt
This work reports the formation of circular cavities and Au-SiOx nanoflowers after annealing of thin Au film deposited on SiO2/Si substrates, and the transformation of nanoflowers to nanosprouts with increasing the annealing time. Two reference experiments indicate that both H2 and Si are indispensable for the above structures. The formation of cavities can be attributed to the SiO2 layer decomposition and the product, volatile SiO, provides a Si source for the formation of nanoflowers at the early stage. A model is proposed to indicate that SiO gas produced at the Si/SiO2 interface can diffuse to the surface assisted by the defects in the SiO2 layer before the decomposed cavities are exposed. Then the exposing of those cavities introduces another volatile SiO from the active oxidation of Si substrate, provoking a change in the direction of the main Si source, which in turn makes the one nanoparticle of the nanoflower split in two and finally form the nanosprout. The model about the escape of SiO further details SiO2 decomposition process, and the transformation mechanism from nanoflowers to nanosprout sheds light on a feasible nanofabrication method to design tunable size and shape of nanoparticles.
Softness meets with brightness: dye-doped multifunctional fluorescent polymer particles via microfluidics for labeling. - In: Advanced optical materials, ISSN 2195-1071, Bd. 9 (2021), 13, 2002219, insges. 22 S.
Fluorogenic labeling strategies have emerged as powerful tools for in vivo and in vitro imaging applications for diagnostic and theranostic purposes. Free organic chromophores (fluorescent dyes) are bright but rapidly degrade. Inorganic nanoparticles (e.g., quantum dots) are photostable but toxic to biological systems. Alternatively, dye-doped polymer particles are promising for labeling and imaging due to their properties that overcome limitations of photodegradation and toxicity. This progress report, therefore, presents various synthesis techniques for the generation of dye-doped fluorescent polymer particles. Polymer particles are relatively soft compared to inorganic nanoparticles and can be synthesized with characteristics like biocompatibility and stimuli responsiveness. Also, their ability of loading fluorophores through various interactions reveals brightness. Here, a multiscale-multicolor library of bright and soft fluorescent polymer particles is generated hierarchically. Various microfluidic supported strategies have been applied where fluorophores can be linked to polymeric networks noncovalently and covalently in the interior, and at the surface of nanoparticles (60-550 nm). Besides, microfluidic strategies for hydrophilic and hydrophobic fluorescent polymer microparticles (20-800 [my]m) have been performed for systematic tuning in size and color combination. Furthermore, soft and bright particulate assemblies are enabled through interfacial interactions at the intermediate scale (600 nm-3 [my]m) between the nanometer and micrometer lengthscale.
The Flora Incognita app - interactive plant species identification. - In: Methods in ecology and evolution, ISSN 2041-210X, Bd. 12 (2021), 7, S. 1335-1342
Being able to identify plant species is an important factor for understanding biodiversity and its change due to natural and anthropogenic drivers. We discuss the freely available Flora Incognita app for Android, iOS and Harmony OS devices that allows users to interactively identify plant species and capture their observations. Specifically developed deep learning algorithms, trained on an extensive repository of plant observations, classify plant images with yet unprecedented accuracy. By using this technology in a context-adaptive and interactive identification process, users are now able to reliably identify plants regardless of their botanical knowledge level. Users benefit from an intuitive interface and supplementary educational materials. The captured observations in combination with their metadata provide a rich resource for researching, monitoring and understanding plant diversity. Mobile applications such as Flora Incognita stimulate the successful interplay of citizen science, conservation and education.
Reachability problems on reliable and lossy queue automata. - In: Theory of computing systems, ISSN 1433-0490, Bd. 65 (2021), 8, S. 1211-1242
We study the reachability problem for queue automata and lossy queue automata. Concretely, we consider the set of queue contents which are forwards resp. backwards reachable from a given set of queue contents. Here, we prove the preservation of regularity if the queue automaton loops through some special sets of transformation sequences. This is a generalization of the results by Boigelot et al. and Abdulla et al. regarding queue automata looping through a single sequence of transformations. We also prove that our construction is possible in polynomial time.
Extremophiles in soil communities of former copper mining sites of the East Harz region (Germany) reflected by re-analyzed 16S rRNA data. - In: Microorganisms, ISSN 2076-2607, Bd. 9 (2021), 7, 1422, insges. 16 S.
The east and southeast rim of Harz mountains (Germany) are marked by a high density of former copper mining places dating back from the late 20th century to the middle age. A set of 18 soil samples from pre- and early industrial mining places and one sample from an industrial mine dump have been selected for investigation by 16S rRNA and compared with six samples from non-mining areas. Although most of the soil samples from the old mines show pH values around 7, RNA profiling reflects many operational taxonomical units (OTUs) belonging to acidophilic genera. For some of these OTUs, similarities were found with their abundances in the comparative samples, while others show significant differences. In addition to pH-dependent bacteria, thermophilic, psychrophilic, and halophilic types were observed. Among these OTUs, several DNA sequences are related to bacteria which are reported to show the ability to metabolize special substrates. Some OTUs absent in comparative samples from limestone substrates, among them Thaumarchaeota were present in the soil group from ancient mines with pH > 7. In contrast, acidophilic types have been found in a sample from a copper slag deposit, e.g., the polymer degrading bacterium Granulicella and Acidicaldus, which is thermophilic, too. Soil samples of the group of pre-industrial mines supplied some less abundant, interesting OTUs as the polymer-degrading Povalibacter and the halophilic Lewinella and Halobacteriovorax. A particularly high number of bacteria (OTUs) which had not been detected in other samples were found at an industrial copper mine dump, among them many halophilic and psychrophilic types. In summary, the results show that soil samples from the ancient copper mining places contain soil bacterial communities that could be a promising source in the search for microorganisms with valuable metabolic capabilities.
Protective effect of water-soluble C60 fullerene nanoparticles on the ischemia-reperfusion injury of the muscle soleus in rats. - In: International journal of molecular sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, Bd. 22 (2021), 13, 6812, insges. 13 S.
Im Titel ist "60" tiefgestellt
The biomechanical parameters of muscle soleus contraction in rats and their blood biochemical indicators after the intramuscular administration of water-soluble C60 fullerene at doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg 1 h before the onset of muscle ischemia were investigated. In particular, changes in the contraction force of the ischemic muscle soleus, the integrated power of the muscle, the time to achieve the maximum force response, the dynamics of fatigue processes, and the parameters of the transition from dentate to smooth tetanus, levels of creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate and lactate dehydrogenase, and parameters of prooxidant-antioxidant balance (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydrogen peroxide, and reduced glutathione and catalase) were analyzed. The positive therapeutic changes in the studied biomechanical and biochemical markers were revealed, which indicate the possibility of using water-soluble C60 fullerenes as effective prophylactic nanoagents to reduce the severity of pathological conditions of the muscular system caused by ischemic damage to skeletal muscles.
Experimental setup for the investigation of reproducibility of novel tool changing systems in nanofabrication machines. - In: Nanomanufacturing and metrology, ISSN 2520-8128, Bd. 4 (2021), 3, S. 181-189
Nanomeasuring machines developed at the Technische Universität Ilmenau enable three-dimensional measurements and manufacturing processes with the lowest uncertainties. Due to the requirements for these processes, a highly reproducible and long-term stable tool changing system is needed. For this purpose, kinematically determined couplings are widely used. The state-of-the-art investigations on those are not sufficient for the highest demands on the reproducibility required for this application. A theoretical determination of the reproducibility based on analytical or numerical methods is possible, however not in the desired nanometer range. Due to this, a measurement setup for the determination of the reproducibility in five degrees of freedom with nanometer uncertainty was developed. First, potential measuring devices are systematically examined and measurement principles were developed out of this. A three-dimensional vector-based uncertainty analysis is performed to prove the feasibility of the measurement principle and provides a basis for further design. As a result, a translatory measurement uncertainty of 10 nm and a rotatory uncertainty of 11 nrad can be reached. Afterwards, the measurement setup is designed, focusing on the metrological frame and the lift-off device. The developed setup exceeds the uncertainties of the measurement setups presented in the state-of-the-art by an order of magnitude, allowing new in-depth investigations of the reproducibility of kinematic couplings.