Erscheinungsjahr 2020

Anzahl der Treffer: 66
Erstellt: Sat, 02 Jul 2022 00:19:17 +0200 in 0.1061 sec

Weidner, Florian; Broll, Wolfgang;
Stereoscopic 3D dashboards : an investigation of performance, workload, and gaze behavior during take-overs in semi-autonomous driving. - In: Personal and ubiquitous computing, ISSN 1617-4917, Bd. 26 (2022), 3, S. 697-719

When operating a conditionally automated vehicle, humans occasionally have to take over control. If the driver is out of the loop, a certain amount of time is necessary to gain situation awareness. This work evaluates the potential of stereoscopic 3D (S3D) dashboards for presenting smart S3D take-over-requests (TORs) to support situation assessment. In a driving simulator study with a 4 × 2 between-within design, we presented 3 smart TORs showing the current traffic situation and a baseline TOR in 2D and S3D to 52 participants doing the n-back task. We further investigate if non-standard locations affect the results. Take-over performance indicates that participants looked at and processed the TORs' visual information and by that, could perform more safe take-overs. S3D warnings in general, as well as warnings appearing at the participants’ focus of attention and warnings at the instrument cluster, performed best. We conclude that visual warnings, presented on an S3D dashboard, can be a valid option to support take-over while not increasing workload. We further discuss participants’ gaze behavior in the context of visual warnings for automotive user interfaces.
Boeck, Thomas; Sanjari, Seyed Loghman; Becker, Tatiana;
Dynamics of a magnetic pendulum in the presence of an oscillating conducting plate. - In: Proceedings in applied mathematics and mechanics, ISSN 1617-7061, Bd. 20 (2021), 1, e202000083, insges. 2 S.

A pendulum with an attached permanent magnet moving near a conductor is a typical experiment for the demonstration of electromagnetic braking. When the conductor itself moves, it can transfer energy to the pendulum. We study a simple but exact analytical model where the conductor is a horizontally unbounded flat plate. For this geometry, eddy currents and induced Lorentz force due to the motion of a magnetic dipole are known analytically in the quasistatic limit. A vertical oscillation of such a horizontal plate located beneath the magnet is considered. In this setup, the vertical position of the pendulum is an equilibrium point when the magnetic moment of the magnet is perpendicular to its plane of motion. Depending on the strength of the magnetic dipole moment, the frequency and amplitude of the plate as well as the distance between plate and magnet, the plate oscillation can destabilize the equilibrium. The stability limits for weak electromagnetic coupling are computed analytically using the harmonic balancing method. For stronger coupling, the stability limits are obtained numerically using Floquet analysis. Chaotic motions with finite amplitudes are also found.
Eichfelder, Gabriele; Warnow, Leo;
Proximity measures based on KKT points for constrained multi-objective optimization. - In: Journal of global optimization, ISSN 1573-2916, Bd. 80 (2021), 1, S. 63-86

An important aspect of optimization algorithms, for instance evolutionary algorithms, are termination criteria that measure the proximity of the found solution to the optimal solution set. A frequently used approach is the numerical verification of necessary optimality conditions such as the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions. In this paper, we present a proximity measure which characterizes the violation of the KKT conditions. It can be computed easily and is continuous in every efficient solution. Hence, it can be used as an indicator for the proximity of a certain point to the set of efficient (Edgeworth-Pareto-minimal) solutions and is well suited for algorithmic use due to its continuity properties. This is especially useful within evolutionary algorithms for candidate selection and termination, which we also illustrate numerically for some test problems.
Köhler, Tobias; Grätzel, Michael; Bergmann, Jean Pierre;
Influence of different Ni coatings on the long-term behavior of ultrasonic welded EN AW 1370 cable/EN CW 004A arrestor dissimilar joints. - In: Welding in the world, ISSN 1878-6669, Bd. 65 (2021), 3, S. 429-440

The increasing demand for energy-efficient vehicles requires suitable methods for cost and weight reduction. This can be achieved by the replacement of copper by aluminum, in particular for the on-board power systems. However, the complete substitution is restricted by the mechanical and physical material properties of aluminum as well as challenges in the aluminum copper interface. The challenges concern the corrosion vulnerability and the occurrence of brittle intermetallic compounds (IMC) which can negatively influence the mechanical properties and the electrical conductivity. Therefore, current investigations focus on the one hand on the realization of dissimilar aluminum copper joints by suitable joining technologies, like ultrasonic welding, and on the other hand on the assurance of a sufficient prevention against harmful corrosion effects. In cases where the joint cannot be protected against corrosion by sealing, nickel coatings can be used to protect the joint. In the present study, the influence of electroless, electroplated, and sulfamate nickel coatings was investigated regarding the long-term stability. The joints were performed as industry-related arrester connections, consisting of EN AW 1370 cables and EN CW 004A terminals. The samples were exposed to corrosive as well as electrical, thermal, and mechanical stress tests according to current standards and regulations.
Eichfelder, Gabriele; Klamroth, Kathrin; Niebling, Julia;
Nonconvex constrained optimization by a filtering branch and bound. - In: Journal of global optimization, ISSN 1573-2916, Bd. 80 (2021), 1, S. 31-61

A major difficulty in optimization with nonconvex constraints is to find feasible solutions. As simple examples show, the [alpha]BB-algorithm for single-objective optimization may fail to compute feasible solutions even though this algorithm is a popular method in global optimization. In this work, we introduce a filtering approach motivated by a multiobjective reformulation of the constrained optimization problem. Moreover, the multiobjective reformulation enables to identify the trade-off between constraint satisfaction and objective value which is also reflected in the quality guarantee. Numerical tests validate that we indeed can find feasible and often optimal solutions where the classical single-objective [alpha]BB method fails, i.e., it terminates without ever finding a feasible solution.
Prinz, Sebastian; Thomann, Jana; Eichfelder, Gabriele; Boeck, Thomas; Schumacher, Jörg;
Expensive multi-objective optimization of electromagnetic mixing in a liquid metal. - In: Optimization and engineering, ISSN 1573-2924, Bd. 22 (2021), 2, S. 1065-1089

This paper presents a novel trust-region method for the optimization of multiple expensive functions. We apply this method to a biobjective optimization problem in fluid mechanics, the optimal mixing of particles in a flow in a closed container. The three-dimensional time-dependent flows are driven by Lorentz forces that are generated by an oscillating permanent magnet located underneath the rectangular vessel. The rectangular magnet provides a spatially non-uniform magnetic field that is known analytically. The magnet oscillation creates a steady mean flow (steady streaming) similar to those observed from oscillating rigid bodies. In the optimization problem, randomly distributed mass-less particles are advected by the flow to achieve a homogeneous distribution (objective function 1) while keeping the work done to move the permanent magnet minimal (objective function 2). A single evaluation of these two objective functions may take more than two hours. For that reason, to save computational time, the proposed method uses interpolation models on trust-regions for finding descent directions. We show that, even for our significantly simplified model problem, the mixing patterns vary significantly with the control parameters, which justifies the use of improved optimization techniques and their further development.
Schorr, Philipp; Li, Enrique Roberto Carrillo; Kaufhold, Tobias; Hernández, Jorge Antonio Rodríguez; Zentner, Lena; Zimmermann, Klaus; Böhm, Valter;
Kinematic analysis of a rolling tensegrity structure with spatially curved members. - In: Meccanica, ISSN 1572-9648, Bd. 56 (2021), 4, S. 953-961

In this work, a tensegrity structure with spatially curved members is applied as rolling locomotion system. The actuation of the structure allows a variation of the originally cylindrical shape to a conical shape. Moreover, the structure is equipped with internal movable masses to control the position of the center of mass of the structure. To control the locomotion system a reliable actuation strategy is required. Therefore, the kinematics of the system considering the nonholonomic constraints are derived in this paper. Based on the resulting insight in the locomotion behavior a feasible actuation strategy is designed to control the trajectory of the system. To verify this approach kinematic analyses are evaluated numerically. The simulation data confirm the path following due to an appropriate shape change of the tensegrity structure. Thus, this system enables a two-dimensional rolling locomotion.
Söllner, Fritz;
[Rezension von: Rindermann, Heiner, 1966-, Cognitive capitalism]. - In: Public choice. - Dordrecht [u.a.] : Springer Science + Business Media B.V., 1966- , ISSN: 1573-7101 , ZDB-ID: 1475723-0, ISSN 1573-7101, Bd. 187 (2021), 3/4, S. 527-531
Xu, Rui; Du, Lei; Adekoya, David; Zhang, Gaixia; Zhang, Shanqing; Sun, Shuhui; Lei, Yong;
Well-defined nanostructures for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. - In: Advanced energy materials, ISSN 1614-6840, Bd. 11 (2021), 15, 2001537, insges. 53 S.

Electrochemical energy conversion and storage play crucial roles in meeting the increasing demand for renewable, portable, and affordable power supplies for society. The rapid development of nanostructured materials provides an alternative route by virtue of their unique and promising effects emerging at nanoscale. In addition to finding advanced materials, structure design and engineering of electrodes improves the electrochemical performance and the resultant commercial competitivity. Regarding the structural engineering, controlling the geometrical parameters (i.e., size, shape, hetero-architecture, and spatial arrangement) of nanostructures and thus forming well-defined nanostructure (WDN) electrodes have been the central aspects of investigations and practical applications. This review discusses the fundamental aspects and concept of WDNs for energy conversion and storage, with a strong emphasis on illuminating the relationship between the structural characteristics and the resultant electrochemical superiorities. Key strategies for actualizing well-defined features in nanostructures are summarized. Electrocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis (for energy conversion) as well as metal-ion batteries and supercapacitors (for energy storage) are selected to illustrate the superiorities of WDNs in electrochemical reactions and charge carrier transportation. Finally, conclusions and perspectives regarding future research, development, and applications of WDNs are discussed.
Schweser, Thomas; Stiebitz, Michael;
Partitions of hypergraphs under variable degeneracy constraints. - In: Journal of graph theory, ISSN 1097-0118, Bd. 96 (2021), 1, S. 7-33