Efficient phased array radiation pattern evaluation for 5G and SatCom On-The-Move (SOTM) applications. - In: IEEE Xplore digital library, ISSN 2473-2001, (2023), insges. 5 S.
In satellite communications, it is becoming challenging to provide the tracking performance which is required for Non-Geostationary Orbit (NGSO) constellations with the traditional Satellite Communications (SatCom) On The Move (SOTM) terminal structure which employs bulky parabolic antennas. On the other hand, in terrestrial networks, the single omnidirectional communication with User Equipment (UE) does not provide enough throughput to fulfill the need for higher speed connections. As a consequence, manufacturers started to invest in developing new terminals which use phased array antennas to enable beamforming to increase the directivity and null the interference in terrestrial networks and to provide rapid tracking performance as well as seamless handovers in SOTM. However, this generates new challenge as these antennas change beam patterns depending on the beam steering angle. It is not trivial to evaluate the performance of beamforming antennas since the measurement of the high number of beam patterns that the phased array can form in all directions is time consuming. In this paper, we propose a methodology to measure a large number of beam patterns of a phased array antenna in a more time efficient approach compared to traditional antenna measurement methods. The measured patterns can be used to evaluate the antenna performance and capabilities in different conditions and verify the terminal ability to fulfill the requirements specified by the standards.
Configurable pseudo noise radar imaging system enabling synchronous MIMO channel extension. - In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, Bd. 23 (2023), 5, 2454, insges. 27 S.
In this article, we propose an evolved system design approach to ultra-wideband (UWB) radar based on pseudo-random noise (PRN) sequences, the key features of which are its user-adaptability to meet the demands provided by desired microwave imaging applications and its multichannel scalability. In light of providing a fully synchronized multichannel radar imaging system for short-range imaging as mine detection, non-destructive testing (NDT) or medical imaging, the advanced system architecture is presented with a special focus put on the implemented synchronization mechanism and clocking scheme. The core of the targeted adaptivity is provided by means of hardware, such as variable clock generators and dividers as well as programmable PRN generators. In addition to adaptive hardware, the customization of signal processing is feasible within an extensive open-source framework using the Red Pitaya® data acquisition platform. A system benchmark in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), jitter, and synchronization stability is conducted to determine the achievable performance of the prototype system put into practice. Furthermore, an outlook on the planned future development and performance improvement is provided.
Fill level measurements using an M-sequence UWB radar. - In: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, Bd. 15 (2023), 1, S. 74-81
Due to increasingly complex and automated manufacturing processes, the demands on the control parameters of these processes are also increasing. In many applications, such a parameter is the fill quantity, whose precise determination is of ever growing importance. This paper shows with which accuracy and precision an M-sequence ultra-wideband radar can determine levels in small metallic and non-metallic containers with contact-based and contactless measurements. First, the principle of level measurement using guided wave radar is explained and the measurement setup is described. Afterward, the measurement results are shown and discussed. The measurements show that the level can be measured with an accuracy of better than 0.5 mm. In addition, level fluctuations can be detected with a precision of 3 μm. Based on the results of the guided wave radar, the possibilities of volumetric contactless measurement using an electrically small patch antenna are discussed. A particular challenge in contactless level measurement is the high number of multipath components, which strongly influence the accuracy. In addition, there are near-field effects when measuring close to the antenna. Exploiting these near-field effects, an additional method to accurately determine the full state of the container is investigated.
Labeling custom indoor point clouds through 2D semantic image segmentation. - In: 2022 Sixth IEEE International Conference on Robotic Computing, (2022), S. 261-264
For effective Computer Vision (CV) applications, one of the difficult challenges service robots have to face concerns with complete scene understanding. Therefore, various strategies are employed for point-level segregation of the 3D scene, such as semantic segmentation. Currently Deep Learning (DL) based algorithms are popular in this domain. However, they require precisely labeled ground truth data. Generating this data is a lengthy and expensive procedure, resulting in a limited variety of available data. On the contrary, the 2D image domain offers labeled data in abundance. Therefore, this study explores how we can achieve accurate labels for the 3D domain by utilizing semantic segmentation on 2D images and projecting the estimated labels to the 3D space via the depth channel. The labeled data may then be used for vision related tasks such as robot navigation or localization.
Emulation of electromagnetic plane waves for 3D antenna pattern estimation. - In: 2022 IEEE 96th Vehicular Technology Conference:(VTC 2022-Fall), (2022), insges. 6 S.
With the fast development of wireless devices, over-the-air (OTA) testing is becoming the preferred method among developers and manufacturers of wireless equipment. The ability to recreate a scenario under controllable and repeatable conditions keeps the method under constant development, providing new features that increase the realism during the tests. A recent proof of that is the integration of 3D wave field synthesis (3DWFS) to OTA testing, which becomes a significant step to accurately emulate wireless scenarios within a controlled environment.In this context, this contribution improves the OTA system calibration for 3DWFS; efficiently increasing the emulation quality of electromagnetic plane waves impinging from any angular position within an anechoic chamber. In fact, this enhancement implicitly delivers a new method for accurate estimation of the antenna radiation pattern in 3D. This is not only a highly demanded application among antenna manufacturers but in this case also proves the validity of the results and consolidates the integration of 3DWFS to OTA testing.
Enhancement of vision-based 3D reconstruction systems using radar for smart farming. - In: 2022 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Agriculture and Forestry, (2022), S. 155-159
Digital field recordings are central to most precision agriculture systems since they can replicate the physical environment and thus monitor the state of an entire field or individual plants. Using different sensors, such as cameras and radar, data can be collected from various domains. Through the combination of radio wave propagation and visible light phenomena, it is possible to enhance, e.g., the optical condition of a fruit with internal parameters such as the water content. This paper proposes a method to correct sensor errors to perform data fusion. As an example, we observe a watermelon with camera and radar sensors and present a system architecture for the visualization of both sensors. For this purpose, we constructed a handheld platform on which both sensors are mounted. In our report, the radar is analyzed in terms of systematic and stochastic errors to formulate an angle-dependent mapping function for error correction. It is successfully shown that camera and radar data are correctly assigned with a watermelon used as a target object, demonstrated by a 3D reconstruction. The proposed system shows promising results for sensor overlay, but radar data remain challenging to interpret.
Time-domain analysis of ultra-wideband scattering properties of fruits. - In: 2022 19th European Radar Conference, (2022), S. 77-80
In the present paper we evaluate scattering properties of fruits measured with a short-range Ultra-Wideband radar. This is part of our investigation how effectively such a radar can be used to infer information such as fruit biomass or ripeness in an agricultural environment. The covered frequency band spans from 1.4 to 5.6 GHz. We analyze measured impulse responses of a watermelon, a grapefruit, and an apple with respect to a dependency on the distance between radar and fruit and the observation angle i.e., rotation of the fruit. Measurements are performed under laboratory conditions, however, we analyze the data considering a pre-harvest analysis on a field. It becomes apparent that an analysis of the dispersed dominant reflection of the peel is most promising. Due to the natural growth and hence anisotropy of the fruits, we conclude to average over multiple monostatic observation angles to reduce the natural variations of e.g. the scattered power.
Enable SDRs for real-time MIMO channel sounding featuring parallel coherent Rx channels. - In: 2022 IEEE 95th Vehicular Technology Conference:(VTC2022-Spring), (2022), insges. 5 S.
A parallel receiver architecture for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel sounding application is presented with a software-defined radio (SDR)-based field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation. The receiver covers phase coherent reception via shared local oscillator (LO) and reference clock, a timing scheme synchronous to the antenna switching at the transmitter, and an integrated automatic gain control (AGC) in all receive channels. It is built with SDRs (NI USRP-2955, X310 series with TwinRx daughterboards). The use of these off-the-shelf hardware components reduces the costs of the sounding system. The FPGA implementation together with the system parameters of the chosen hardware allows a minimum AGC update interval of approx. 44.38 μs. Our setup demonstrates the applicability of state-of-the-art SDRs as a sounding system for continuous acquisition of the time variant, space, and frequency selective radio propagation channel.
From 3D point cloud data to ray-tracing multi-band simulations in industrial scenario. - In: 2022 IEEE 95th Vehicular Technology Conference:(VTC2022-Spring), (2022), insges. 5 S.
In this paper, we present the ray tracing (RT) simulation in the 3D model of one highly dense clutter industrial hall, which is scanned by laser scanner and reconstructed based on accurate point cloud. The whole processing chain from the scanning of the physical environment to running the simulation is presented in detail. To validate the simulation results, the synthetic channel characteristics and large-scale parameters, including delay spread (DS), angular spread (AS) and path loss (PL), are compared with those obtained from channel sounding measurement in both LOS and NLOS cases, at 6.75 GHz, 30 GHz and 60 GHz. The simulation results show that some scatters are significant in all bands and may be well identified and tracked. This indicates that our target to generate a deterministic channel model or a hybrid channel model at multi-band for industrial scenario may be possible.
5G new radio physical downlink control channel reliability enhancements for multiple transmission-reception-point communications. - In: IEEE access, ISSN 2169-3536, Bd. 10 (2022), S. 97394-97407
Non-coherent transmission from multiple transmission-reception-points (TRPs), i.e., base stations, or base station panels to a user equipment (UE) is exploited in 5G New Radio (NR) to improve downlink reliability and cell-edge throughput. Ultra reliable low-latency communications (URLLC) and enhanced Mobile BroadBand (eMBB) are prominent target use-cases for multi-TRP or multi-panel transmissions. In Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 17 specifications, multi-TRP-based transmissions were specified for the physical downlink control channel (PDCCH) specifically to enhance its reliability and robustness. In this work, a comprehensive account of various multi-TRP reliability enhancement schemes applicable for the 5G NR PDCCH, including the ones supported by the 3GPP Release 17 specifications, is provided. The impact of the specifications for each scheme, UE and network complexity and their utility in various use-cases is studied. Their error performances are evaluated via link-level simulations using the evaluation criteria agreed in the 3GPP proceedings. The 3GPP-supported multi-TRP PDCCH repetition schemes, and the additionally proposed PDCCH repetition and diversity schemes are shown to be effective in improving 5G NR PDCCH reliability and combating link blockage in mmWave scenarios. The link-level simulations also provide insights for the implementation of the decoding schemes for the PDCCH enhancements under different channel conditions. Analysis of the performance, complexity and implementation constraints of the proposed PDCCH transmission schemes indicate their suitability to UEs with reduced-capability or stricter memory constraints and flexible network scheduling.