Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Del Galdo, GiovanniUniv.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Del Galdo, Giovanni
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Giovanni Del GaldoTU Ilmenau
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Giovanni Del Galdo

Contact information

Phone: +49 3677 69-4280
Office: Helmholtz Building, Room 2502
Address: Technische Universität Ilmenau
  Fakultät für Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik
  Fachgebiet Elektronische Messtechnik und Signalverarbeitung
  Postfach 100 565
  98684 Ilmenau

Short Biography

Giovanni Del Galdo received in 2002 the Laurea degree in Telecommunications Engineering from Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy. In 2007, under the guidance of Prof. Martin Haardt, he obtained the Dr.-Ing. degree from Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau, Germany. His dissertation, entitled “Geometry-based Channel Modeling for Multi-User MIMO Systems and Applications” may be downloaded here.


He then joined the Communication Acoustics group as Senior Scientist in the Audio Department of the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS. Here, he was also member of the International Audio Laboratories Erlangen (AudioLabs) in cooperation with Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg. His research was focused on audio watermarking and parametric representations of spatial sound.


Since 2012, he has been leading a collaborative research group, comprising a department at Fraunhofer IIS and a chair at TU Ilmenau. In 2016, the group merged with the chair of Electronic Measurements led by Prof. Reiner Thomä, giving rise to the Electronic Measurements and Signal Processing (EMS) group, which currently includes approximately 60 staff members.


His current research interests include:

  • analysis, modeling, and design of multidimensional signals and systems
  • measurement systems for multidimensional characterization (e.g. MIMO channel sounding) up to sub-THz frequencies, ranging from inexpensive SDR solutions up to high-performance specialized hardware
  • Over-The-Air (OTA) testing for terrestrial and satellite wireless systems (communications and navigation)
  • High resolution parameter estimation, compressed sensing and sparsity promoting reconstruction methods


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Rashidifar, Ali; Römer, Florian; Semper, Sebastian; Gutzeit, Nam; Del Galdo, Giovanni
Broadband DRA with uniform angular dependent delay for indoor localization. - In: IEEE access, ISSN 2169-3536, Bd. 12 (2024), S. 63644-63654

Estimating the Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA), is a simple yet reliable technique to accurately perform an indoor monostatic localization. To implement TDoA estimation, one approach is to utilize a broadband radar system equipped with multiple receiving antenna elements. To obtain the Time of Arrival (ToA) at each antenna element, the round-trip time is required. However, the round-trip time does not only consist of the propagation delay in free space but the propagation delay within the antenna as well. To perform the localization precisely, it is desired that an antenna element introduces a uniform delay in all directions. To this end, a compact rectangular dielectric resonator antenna is designed for the operating frequency of 6.5 GHz with a fractional bandwidth of 20%. Al2O3 with a dielectric constant of 9.8 is used for the substrate as well as the dielectric resonator. The antenna is designed to provide a high correlation between the input and the output pulses. To investigate the correlation, the antenna is excited with a modulated Gaussian pulse and the radiated pulses are studied. The antenna possesses an excellent behavior in terms of pulse preservation for the upper hemisphere. Therefore, when incoming pulses from the same distance but different directions impinge on the antenna, they reach the port of the antenna at a similar time. It is shown that this feature of the proposed antenna allows the utilization of TDoA estimation without the need for a calibration step. The characteristics of the antenna are verified by simulation and measurement.

Dupleich, Diego; Ebert, Alexander; Völker-Schöneberg, Yanneck; Sitdikov, Damir; Boban, Mate; Samara, Lutfi; Del Galdo, Giovanni; Thomä, Reiner
Characterization of propagation in an industrial scenario from sub-6 GHz to 300 GHz. - In: IEEE Xplore digital library, ISSN 2473-2001, (2023), S. 1475-1480

We perform simultaneous multi-band ultra-wideband dual-polarized double-directional measurements at sub-6 GHz (center frequency, 6.75 GHz), mmWave (74.25 GHz), and sub-THz (305.27 GHz) in line of sight (LOS) and non-LOS in a small industrial scenario (machine room). The aim is to characterize the propagation at THz taking as a reference the lower bands and identifying shared and distinguishing features. The spatial/temporal analysis of the measurements shows strong similarities in multi-path components (MPCs) between the different bands. Moreover, high order reflections have been identified at THz. Overall, the results indicate that THz channels exhibit significant multipath, with some specular MPCs unique to the band and with lower contribution by the diffuse components. Finally, path-loss has also been computed and compared with existing multi-band models.

Vintimilla, Renato Zea; Lorenz, Mario; Muchhal, Nitin; Landmann, Markus; Del Galdo, Giovanni
Demonstration and validation of a 3D wave field synthesis setup for multiple GNSS satellite emulation via over-the-air testing. - In: AMTA 2023 proceedings, (2023), insges. 10 S.

Wireless devices supporting global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) services have become an essential tool in different areas of technology such as agriculture, construction, automotive, etc. Therefore the performance and reliability of such devices are important aspects that need to be addressed in the testing stage during the development of the units. The integration of the Over-the-Air (OTA) testing method with the 3D Wave Field Synthesis (3DWFS) technique offer not only the benefit of having tests under controllable and repeatable conditions but also the ability to recreate complex and realistic scenarios in a controlled environment with full polarimetric support for the testing of wireless devices. This contribution applies this technology to emulate a GNSS scenario within an anechoic chamber. For the results validation, a realistic GNSS outdoor scenario was recorded and compared with the emulated scenario where 3DWFS was applied for each individual satellite. This represents a significant step for the GNSS community and also for the future development and testing of wireless devices.

Ravelo, Carlos; Martín-Sacristán, David; Shah, Syed Najaf Haider; Smeenk, Carsten; Del Galdo, Giovanni; Monserrat, Jose F.
Sensing resources reduction for vehicle detection with integrated sensing and communications. - In: 2023 IEEE 97th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2023-Spring), (2023), insges. 5 S.

Integrated Sensing and Communications (ISAC) aims at incorporating radar and communications functionalities into a single system, achieving higher spectral efficiency through their joint operation. This paper proposes a methodology for reducing resource elements and scanning beams used in the target detection stage of ISAC. Building upon the well-known symbol domain Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) ISAC processing algorithm, its relevant characteristics and limits are considered to minimize the periodicity of sensing resource elements. Moreover, a methodology for finding the required beams to sense a scenario using the radar range equation in a link-budget analysis is proposed and later illustrated via simulations. The simulations show that it is possible to cover a road scenario using a limited number of beams and resource elements from a New Radio (NR) OFDM frame.

Gedschold, Jonas; Semper, Sebastian; Thomä, Reiner; Döbereiner, Michael; Del Galdo, Giovanni
Dynamic delay-dispersive UWB-radar targets: modeling and estimation. - In: IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation, ISSN 1558-2221, Bd. 71 (2023), 8, S. 6814-6829

This publication proposes a parametric data model and a gradient-based maximum likelihood estimator suitable for the description of delay-dispersive responses of multiple dynamic ultrawideband (UWB)-radar targets. The target responses are estimated jointly with the global target parameters range and velocity. The large relative bandwidth of UWB has consequences for model-based parameter estimation. On the one hand, the Doppler effect leads to a dispersive response in the Doppler spectrum and to a coupling of the target parameters that both need to be considered during modeling and estimation. On the other hand, the shape of an extended target results in a dispersive response in range, which can be resolved by the radar resolution. We consider this extended response as a parameter of interest, e.g., for the purpose of target recognition. Hence, we propose an efficient description and estimation of it by a finite impulse response (FIR) structure only imposing a restriction on the target’s dispersiveness in range. We evaluate the approach on simulations, compare it to state-of-the-art solutions, and provide a validation of the FIR model on measurements of a static scenario.

Wegner, Tim Erich; Gebhardt, Stefan; Del Galdo, Giovanni
Fill level measurement of low-permittivity material using an M-sequence UWB radar. - In: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, Bd. 15 (2023), 8, S. 1299-1307

Due to increasingly complex and automated manufacturing processes, the demands on the control parameters of these processes are also increasing. One parameter is the fill quantity of, e.g., liquids in production plants, whose precise determination is of ever-growing importance. Up to now, the exact level of determination under difficult conditions, such as high ambient temperatures, has been a particular challenge. This paper demonstrates a novel method by which an M-sequence UWB radar can determine levels of low-permittivity materials in small metal containers. For this purpose, hot melt is used as an example. Thus, the influence of large temperature differences on the long-term stability of level measurement can also be investigated. The measurements show that the level of hot melt can be measured to be long-term stable with an accuracy of better than 3 mm. Furthermore, the precise determination of the empty state is highly important for many applications. For this reason, this paper shows a method for determining the empty state without complex calibration procedures. For the empty level indication, an accuracy of up to 0.5 mm could be achieved for molten hot glue and 3% of the tank volume, independent of the shape or aggregate state of the medium.

Eltohamy, Ali; Alazab Elkhouly, Mostafa; Große, Peter; Landmann, Markus; Del Galdo, Giovanni
Efficient phased array radiation pattern evaluation for 5G and SatCom On-The-Move (SOTM) applications. - In: 17th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP 2023), (2023), insges. 5 S.

In satellite communications, it is becoming challenging to provide the tracking performance which is required for Non-Geostationary Orbit (NGSO) constellations with the traditional Satellite Communications (SatCom) On The Move (SOTM) terminal structure which employs bulky parabolic antennas. On the other hand, in terrestrial networks, the single omnidirectional communication with User Equipment (UE) does not provide enough throughput to fulfill the need for higher speed connections. As a consequence, manufacturers started to invest in developing new terminals which use phased array antennas to enable beamforming to increase the directivity and null the interference in terrestrial networks and to provide rapid tracking performance as well as seamless handovers in SOTM. However, this generates new challenge as these antennas change beam patterns depending on the beam steering angle. It is not trivial to evaluate the performance of beamforming antennas since the measurement of the high number of beam patterns that the phased array can form in all directions is time consuming. In this paper, we propose a methodology to measure a large number of beam patterns of a phased array antenna in a more time efficient approach compared to traditional antenna measurement methods. The measured patterns can be used to evaluate the antenna performance and capabilities in different conditions and verify the terminal ability to fulfill the requirements specified by the standards.

Bräunlich, Niklas; Wagner, Christoph; Sachs, Jürgen; Del Galdo, Giovanni
Configurable pseudo noise radar imaging system enabling synchronous MIMO channel extension. - In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, Bd. 23 (2023), 5, 2454, insges. 27 S.

In this article, we propose an evolved system design approach to ultra-wideband (UWB) radar based on pseudo-random noise (PRN) sequences, the key features of which are its user-adaptability to meet the demands provided by desired microwave imaging applications and its multichannel scalability. In light of providing a fully synchronized multichannel radar imaging system for short-range imaging as mine detection, non-destructive testing (NDT) or medical imaging, the advanced system architecture is presented with a special focus put on the implemented synchronization mechanism and clocking scheme. The core of the targeted adaptivity is provided by means of hardware, such as variable clock generators and dividers as well as programmable PRN generators. In addition to adaptive hardware, the customization of signal processing is feasible within an extensive open-source framework using the Red Pitaya® data acquisition platform. A system benchmark in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), jitter, and synchronization stability is conducted to determine the achievable performance of the prototype system put into practice. Furthermore, an outlook on the planned future development and performance improvement is provided.

Wegner, Tim Erich; Gebhardt, Stefan; Del Galdo, Giovanni
Fill level measurements using an M-sequence UWB radar. - In: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, Bd. 15 (2023), 1, S. 74-81

Due to increasingly complex and automated manufacturing processes, the demands on the control parameters of these processes are also increasing. In many applications, such a parameter is the fill quantity, whose precise determination is of ever growing importance. This paper shows with which accuracy and precision an M-sequence ultra-wideband radar can determine levels in small metallic and non-metallic containers with contact-based and contactless measurements. First, the principle of level measurement using guided wave radar is explained and the measurement setup is described. Afterward, the measurement results are shown and discussed. The measurements show that the level can be measured with an accuracy of better than 0.5 mm. In addition, level fluctuations can be detected with a precision of 3 μm. Based on the results of the guided wave radar, the possibilities of volumetric contactless measurement using an electrically small patch antenna are discussed. A particular challenge in contactless level measurement is the high number of multipath components, which strongly influence the accuracy. In addition, there are near-field effects when measuring close to the antenna. Exploiting these near-field effects, an additional method to accurately determine the full state of the container is investigated.

Ahmed, Shayan; Gedschold, Jonas; Wegner, Tim Erich; Sode, Adrian; Trabert, Johannes; Del Galdo, Giovanni
Labeling custom indoor point clouds through 2D semantic image segmentation. - In: 2022 Sixth IEEE International Conference on Robotic Computing, (2022), S. 261-264

For effective Computer Vision (CV) applications, one of the difficult challenges service robots have to face concerns with complete scene understanding. Therefore, various strategies are employed for point-level segregation of the 3D scene, such as semantic segmentation. Currently Deep Learning (DL) based algorithms are popular in this domain. However, they require precisely labeled ground truth data. Generating this data is a lengthy and expensive procedure, resulting in a limited variety of available data. On the contrary, the 2D image domain offers labeled data in abundance. Therefore, this study explores how we can achieve accurate labels for the 3D domain by utilizing semantic segmentation on 2D images and projecting the estimated labels to the 3D space via the depth channel. The labeled data may then be used for vision related tasks such as robot navigation or localization.