Zeitschriftenaufsätze und Buchbeiträge

Anzahl der Treffer: 1252
Erstellt: Mon, 24 Jan 2022 08:23:12 +0100 in 12.4952 sec

Roos, Michael M.; Winkler, Andreas; Nilsen, Madeleine; Menzel, Siegfried B.; Strehle, Steffen;
Towards green 3D-microfabrication of Bio-MEMS devices using ADEX dry film photoresists. - In: International journal of precision engineering and manufacturing-green technology, ISSN 2198-0810, Bd. 9 (2022), 1, S. 43-57

Current trends in miniaturized diagnostics indicate an increasing demand for large quantities of mobile devices for health monitoring and point-of-care diagnostics. This comes along with a need for rapid but preferably also green microfabrication. Dry film photoresists (DFPs) promise low-cost and greener microfabrication and can partly or fully replace conventional silicon-technologies being associated with high-energy demands and the intense use of toxic and climate-active chemicals. Due to their mechanical stability and superior film thickness homogeneity, DFPs outperform conventional spin-on photoresists, such as SU-8, especially when three-dimensional architectures are required for micro-analytical devices (e.g. microfluidics). In this study, we utilize the commercial epoxy-based DFP ADEX to demonstrate various application scenarios ranging from the direct modification of microcantilever beams via the assembly of microfluidic channels to lamination-free patterning of DFPs, which employs the DFP directly as a substrate material. Finally, kinked, bottom-up grown silicon nanowires were integrated in this manner as prospective ion-sensitive field-effect transistors in a bio-probe architecture directly on ADEX substrates. Hence, we have developed the required set of microfabrication protocols for such an assembly comprising metal thin film deposition, direct burn-in of lithography alignment markers, and polymer patterning on top of the DFP.

Topper, Brian; Tagiara, Nagia S.; Herrmann, Andreas; Kamitsos, Efstratios I.; Möncke, Doris;
Yttrium and rare-earth modified lithium orthoborates: glass formation and vibrational activity. - In: Journal of non-crystalline solids, ISSN 0022-3093, Bd. 575 (2022), 121152

Glass formation and structure-property relations were explored in highly modified borate glasses containing high loads of rare-earth elements, whose crystalline analogues display a trigonal to tetrahedral borate phase transition (BO33- -> BØ2O23-, where Ø and O- indicate bridging and non-bridging oxygen atoms). The resulting borate networks are completely depolymerized, where borate anions are crosslinked to rare-earth and modifier cations via ionic bonds. The borate structure was found to be based on a single structural unit, BO33- triangles, whose fundamental vibrations are all active in both the Raman and infrared. The local environment of the rare-earth ions in orthoborate glasses was studied with far infrared spectroscopy and, in some cases, by using terbium as a probe ion. A linear correlation was obtained between the effective force constant in the far infrared and the field strength of the rare-earth cation.

Herrmann, Andreas; Tsekrekas, Elizabeth; Möncke, Doris; Clare, Alexis G.;
Luminescence-site symmetry correlations in Dy3+ doped alkali-alkaline earth orthoborates of the type XZBO3 with X = Li, Na, K and Z = Mg, Ca, Ba. - In: Journal of luminescence, ISSN 0022-2313, Bd. 241 (2022), 118429
Im Titel ist "3+" hochgestellt und "3" tiefgestellt

A systematic investigation of the luminescence properties of Dy3+ doped alkali-alkaline earth orthoborates of the stoichiometric composition XZBO3 with X = Li, Na, K and Z = Mg, Ca, Ba was conducted. XRD diffractograms show that the compounds LiMgBO3, LiCaBO3, LiBaBO3, NaMgBO3, NaCaBO3, NaBaBO3, and KMgBO3 could be produced in high purity. Relatively intense luminescence was observed only for the phases LiCaBO3, NaMgBO3, NaCaBO3 and NaBaBO3. Micro Raman investigations show that the Dy3+ luminesence mainly originates from the orthoborate phase in these samples. Photo-luminescence spectroscopy of LiCaBO3, NaCaBO3 and NaBaBO3 shows the typical Dy3+ emission with the prominent emission peak in the yellow spectral range around 575 nm. A second, but much less intense peak is observed at around 485 nm (cyan). The luminescence emission spectrum of Dy3+:NaMgBO3 is much different: here, the highest emission intensity is observed at about 485 nm. It is proposed that the Dy3+ ions occupy the Na positions in this crystal phase which has a much higher symmetry than the alkaline earth positions in the other examined crystal phases. This is supported by broadened and more split up peaks in the excitation and emission spectra of Dy3+:NaMgBO3 suggesting a much stronger local crystal field at the rare earth position in this compound. The results are additionally compared to spectroscopic data of different well known Dy3+ doped crystalline compounds and Dy3+ and Eu3+ doped alkali-alkaline earth orthoborates from other publications, which offer further insight into the relation between the crystallographic sites of the doped rare earth ions and their luminescence.

Li, Feitao; Oliva Ramírez, Manuel; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter;
Effect of SiO2 interlayer thickness in Au/SiO2/Si multilayer systems on Si sources and the formation of Au-based nanostructures. - In: Advanced materials interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, (2021), 2101493, S. 1-9
Early view

Si sources involved in the growth of Au-SiOx nanostructures are investigated through the rapid thermal annealing of gold thin films on SiO2/Si substrates with various SiO2 layer thicknesses (3, 25, 100, 500 nm) in a reducing atmosphere. This method reveals three Si sources whose involvement depends on the thickness of the SiO2 layers, i.e., Si diffusion from the substrate, and SiO from SiO2 decomposition and from Si active oxidation. Increasing thicknesses of the SiO2 layer hampers the Si diffusion and the decomposition of regions of the SiO2 layer, which decreases the concentrations of discovered regions weakening the Si active oxidation. These discovered regions appear in systems with a SiO2 layer of 25 or 100 nm, while they are absent for a 500 nm layer. Furthermore, Au-SiOx nanostructures of different shapes form in each system. Both behaviors indicate that the influence and transport mechanisms of the different Si sources are largely dependent on the thicknesses of the SiO2 layers and that they control the evolution of the Au-SiOx nanostructures. A clear understanding of the relationship between these thicknesses and the possible Si sources and their roles in the evolution of the nanostructures makes the tailored fabrication of nanostructures possible.

Wang, Qi; Cheng, Xing; Sun, Yukun; Sun, Zaicheng; Wang, Dong; Chen, Ge; Schaaf, Peter;
A synergetic effect between photogenerated carriers and photothermally enhanced electrochemical urea-assisted hydrogen generation on the Ni-NiO/Nickel Foam catalyst. - In: Materials advances, ISSN 2633-5409, Bd. 2 (2021), 6, S. 2104-2111

The urea-assisted water electrolysis reactions are of great significance for solving the increasingly serious energy crisis and environmental pollution. Recently, the photo-driven effect strategy has been demonstrated to be an efficient external driving force for improving electrocatalytic activities. Herein, we synthesized Ni-NiO heterostructured nanosheet arrays grown on Ni foam (denoted as Ni-NiO/NF) as a bifunctional electrocatalyst enhancing the urea oxidation reaction (UOR) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activities simultaneously under light irradiation. Moreover, when the catalyst is used in a two-electrode system for the urea-assisted water electrolysis reaction, the cell potential could be reduced to 1.48 V to achieve the current density of 10 mA cm-2 after exposure to light irradiation, as well as remarkable stability. Our studies demonstrate that the enhancement of the HER & UOR activities is attributed to a synergetic effect between photogenerated carriers and photothermy.

Cheng, Pengfei; Kampmann, Ronald; Wang, Dong; Sinzinger, Stefan; Schaaf, Peter;
Tailoring patterned visible-light scattering by silicon photonic crystals. - In: ACS applied materials & interfaces, ISSN 1944-8252, Bd. 13 (2021), 50, S. 60319-60326

Searching for the relationship between the nanostructure and optical properties has always been exciting the researchers in the field of optics (linear optics as well as non-linear optics), energy harvesting (anti-reflective Si solar cells, perovskite solar cells, ..., etc.), and industry (anti-reflection coating on car windows, sunglasses, etc.). In this work, we present an approach for nanostructuring the silicon substrate to silicon photonic crystals. By precisely controlling the etching time and etching path after using nanoimprint lithography, ordered arrays of inverted Si nanopyramids and Si nanopillars with good homogeneity, uniform surface roughness, high reproducibility of pattern transfer, and a controllable aspect ratio are prepared. Experimental investigation of the optical properties indicates that the reflections of these Si nanostructures are mainly determined by the aspect ratio as well as the period of nanostructures. Furthermore, we have experimentally observed visible-light scattering (V-LS) patterns on inverted Si nanopyramids and Si nanopillars, and their corresponding patterns can be precisely controlled by the patterned nanostructures. The V-LS pattern, background, and "ghost peaks" on the angle-resolved scattering results are caused by constructive interference, destructive interference, and the interference situation between both. This controllable nanopatterning on crystalline Si substrates with precisely tunable optical properties shows great potential for applications in many fields, for example, optics, electronics, and energy.

Baloochi, Mostafa; Shekhawat, Deepshikha; Riegler, Sascha Sebastian; Matthes, Sebastian; Glaser, Marcus; Schaaf, Peter; Bergmann, Jean Pierre; Gallino, Isabella; Pezoldt, Jörg;
Influence of initial temperature and convective heat loss on the self-propagating reaction in Al/Ni multilayer foils. - In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, Bd. 14 (2021), 24, 7815, S. 1-15

A two-dimensional numerical model for self-propagating reactions in Al/Ni multilayer foils was developed. It was used to study thermal properties, convective heat loss, and the effect of initial temperature on the self-propagating reaction in Al/Ni multilayer foils. For model adjustments by experimental results, these Al/Ni multilayer foils were fabricated by the magnetron sputtering technique with a 1:1 atomic ratio. Heat of reaction of the fabricated foils was determined employing Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Self-propagating reaction was initiated by an electrical spark on the surface of the foils. The movement of the reaction front was recorded with a high-speed camera. Activation energy is fitted with these velocity data from the high-speed camera to adjust the numerical model. Calculated reaction front temperature of the self-propagating reaction was compared with the temperature obtained by time-resolved pyrometer measurements. X-ray diffraction results confirmed that all reactants reacted and formed a B2 NiAl phase. Finally, it is predicted that (1) increasing thermal conductivity of the final product increases the reaction front velocity; (2) effect of heat convection losses on reaction characteristics is insignificant, e.g., the foils can maintain their characteristics in water; and (3) with increasing initial temperature of the foils, the reaction front velocity and the reaction temperature increased.

Zgheib, Charbel; Lubov, Maxim N.; Kulikov, Dmitri V.; Kharlamov, Vladimir S.; Thiele, Sebastian; Morales Sánchez, Francisco Miguel; Romanus, Henry; Rahbany, Nancy; Beainy, Georges; Stauden, Thomas; Pezoldt, Jörg;
Chemoheteroepitaxy of 3C-SiC(111) on Si(111): influence of predeposited Ge on structure and composition. - In: Physica status solidi, ISSN 1521-396X, Bd. 218 (2021), 24, 2100399, S. 1-10

Secondary ion mass spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, reflection high energy diffraction and transmission electron microscopy are used to gain inside into the effect of Ge on the formation of ultrathin 3C-SiC layers on Si(111) substrates. Accompanying the experimental investigations with simulations it is found that the ultrathin single crystalline 3C-SiC layer is formed on top of a gradient Si1-x-yGexCy buffer layer due to a complex alloying and alloy decomposition processes promoted by carbon and germanium interdiffusion and SiC nucleation. This approach allows tuning residual stress at very early growth stages as well as the interface properties of the 3C-SiC/Si heterostructure. Useful yields of secondary ions of Ge in Si matrix and Si dimer are estimated.

Wu, Xuping; Chen, Honglei; Luo, Xuemei; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter; Zhang, Guangping;
Ultrasensitive strain sensors based on Cu-Al alloy films with voided cluster boundaries. - In: Advanced materials technologies, ISSN 2365-709X, Bd. 6 (2021), 12, 2100524, S. 1-12

Dashtestani, Ashkan Djaberi; Moeinian, Ardeshir; Biskupek, Johannes; Strehle, Steffen;
Contamination-assisted rather than metal catalyst-free bottom-up growth of silicon nanowires. - In: Advanced materials interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Bd. 8 (2021), 22, 2101121, insges. 9 S.

Well-established metal-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth represents still undoubtedly the key technology for bottom-up synthesis of single-crystalline silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Although various SiNW applications are demonstrated, electrical and optical properties are exposed to the inherent risk of electronic deep trap state formation by metal impurities. Therefore, metal catalyst-free growth strategies are intriguing. The oxid-assisted SiNW synthesis is explored and it is shown that contamination control is absolutely crucial. Slightest metal impurities, such as iron, are sufficient to trigger SiNW growth, calling into question true metal catalyst-free SiNW synthesis. Therefore, the term contamination-assisted is rather introduced and it is shown that contamination-assisted SiNW growth is determined by the chemical surface treatment (e.g., with KOH solution), but also by the crystal orientation of a silicon substrate. SiNWs are grown in this regards in a reproducible manner, but so far with a distinct tapering, using a conventional gas-phase reactor system at temperatures of about 680 ˚C and monosilane (SiH4) as the precursor gas. The synthesized SiNWs show convincing electrical properties compared to Au-catalyzed SiNWs. Nevertheless, contamination-assisted growth of SiNWs appears to be an important step toward bottom-up synthesis of high-quality SiNWs with a lower risk of metal poisoning, such as those needed for CMOS and other technologies.