Journal articles and book contributions

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Peipmann, Ralf; Bund, Andreas; Schmidt, Udo;
Simulation verschiedener Hull-Zellen-Geometrien, Teil 2 - Erweiterung der Simulationsmodelle mittels 3D. - In: Galvanotechnik, ISSN 0016-4232, Bd. 113 (2022), 5, S. 575-585

Kovácsovics, Iris; Patzelt, Thomas; Herrmann, Johannes; Bund, Andreas;
Reverse numerical simulation of kinetic parameters from acidic copper Hull cell deposition. - In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 1945-7111, Bd. 169 (2022), 5, 052501

Hull cell depositions are industrially used to monitor electrolytes and study the influence of additives. By combining the Hull cell deposition and a numerical simulation based on the boundary element method via a curve-fitting approach allows to obtain kinetic parameters (e.g. transfer coefficient, exchange current density) and assessing the effects of additives without losing the visual information and the opportunity to get the structural and physical properties of the metal deposition (reverse determination). In an acidic copper electrolyte, an additive based on polyethylene glycol decreases the effective exchange current density, by up to two orders of magnitude, while the transfer coefficient is hardly influenced. By adding another additive based on bis-(3-sulfopropyl)disulphide, the effect is counteracted and increases in dependence on the ratio of both additives. The combined approach enables obtaining more information about visual and structural effects and the deposition kinetics from one experimental analysis.
Shekhawat, Deepshikha; Vauth, Maximilian; Pezoldt, Jörg;
Size dependent properties of reactive materials. - In: Inorganics, ISSN 2304-6740, Bd. 10 (2022), 4, 56, S. 1-19

The nature of the self-sustained reaction of reactive materials is dependent on the physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the reacting materials. These properties behave differently at the nano scale. Low-dimensional nanomaterials have various unusual size dependent transport properties. In this review, we summarize the theoretical and experimental reports on the size effect on melting temperature, heat capacity, reaction enthalpy, and surface energy of the materials at nano scale because nanomaterials possess a significant change in large specific surface area and surface effect than the bulk materials. According to the theoretical analysis of size dependent thermodynamic properties, such as melting temperature, cohesive energy, thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of metallic nanoparticles and ultra-thin layers varies linearly with the reciprocal of the critical dimension. The result of this scaling relation on the material properties can affect the self-sustained reaction behavior in reactive materials. Resultant, powder compacts show lower reaction propagation velocities than bilayer system, if the particle size of the reactants and the void density is decreased an increase of the reaction propagation velocity due to an enhanced heat transfer in reactive materials can be achieved. Standard theories describing the properties of reactive material systems do not include size effects.
Isaac, Nishchay Angel; Pikaar, Ilje; Biskos, George;
Metal oxide semiconducting nanomaterials for air quality gas sensors: operating principles, performance, and synthesis techniques. - In: Microchimica acta, ISSN 1436-5073, Bd. 189 (2022), 5, 196, S. 1-22

To meet requirements in air quality monitoring, sensors are required that can measure the concentration of gaseous pollutants at concentrations down to the ppb and ppt levels, while at the same time they exhibiting high sensitivity, selectivity, and short response/recovery times. Among the different sensor types, those employing metal oxide semiconductors (MOSs) offer great promises as they can be manufactured in easy/inexpensive ways, and designed to measure the concentration of  a wide range of target gases. MOS sensors rely on the adsorption of target gas molecules on the surface of the sensing material and the consequent capturing of electrons from the conduction band that in turn affects their conductivity. Despite their simplicity and ease of manufacturing, MOS gas sensors are restricted by high limits of detection (LOD; which are typically in the ppm range) as well as poor sensitivity and selectivity. LOD and sensitivity can in principle be addressed by nanostructuring the MOSs, thereby increasing their porosity and surface-to-volume ratio, whereas selectivity can be tailored through their chemical composition. In this paper we provide a critical review of the available techniques for nanostructuring MOSs using chemiresistive materials, and discuss how these can be used to attribute desired properties to the end gas sensors. We start by describing the operating principles of chemiresistive sensors, and key material properties that define their performance. The main part of the paper focuses on the available methods for synthesizing nanostructured MOSs for use in gas sensors. We close by addressing the current needs and provide perspectives for improving sensor performance in ways that can fulfill requirements for air quality monitoring.
Pegel, Hendrik; Kessel, Otto; Heugel, Philipp; Deich, Tobias; Tübke, Jens; Birke, Peter; Sauer, Dirk Uwe;
Volume and thickness change of NMC811|SiOx-graphite large-format lithium-ion cells: from pouch cell to active material level. - In: Journal of power sources, ISSN 1873-2755, Bd. 537 (2022), 231443

In this study, the reversible thickness change of a large-format lithium-ion automotive pouch cell is investigated under precisely monitored cell pressure and temperature using an in-house built actively controlled pneumatic cell press. The quantitative and qualitative contribution of the state-of-the-art NMC811 cathode and the SiOx-graphite composite anode to the total pouch cell expansion is resolved by electrochemical dilatometry and validated. Results show that Ni-rich cathodes have a significant impact on the pouch cell expansion and exhibit highly nonlinear thickness change which is related to the change of the individual lattice parameters of the crystal structure. To resolve the contribution of both anode active materials to the total anode expansion, the capacities of SiOx and graphite are determined by differential voltage analysis and validated with half-cell measurements. Then, the volume expansion of SiOx and graphite as a function of the anode state of charge is calculated. By introducing fitting parameters and applying theories about the interaction of SiOx with the surrounding morphology the correlation between the volume expansion of the active materials and the thickness change of the SiOx-Gr composite anode is investigated. The findings suggest that there is significant nonlinear reduction of pore volume at low state of charge.
Hofmann, Meike; Herrmann, Andreas; Brokmann, Ulrike;
Lichtschichtfluoreszenzmikroskopische Untersuchung von Silikatmaterialien :
Light-sheet fluorescence microscopic probing of silicate materials. - In: Technisches Messen, ISSN 2196-7113, Bd. 0 (2022), 0, S. 1-8

Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) is a powerful method for 3D characterization of fluorescent samples. In this contribution we introduce the technique for the application in material analytics by demonstrating the 3D imaging of Ce 3+ -doped YAG (Y 3 Al 5 O 12 ) crystals isolated in a glass matrix. When excited with short wavelength laser radiation, the Ce 3+ doping enables fluorescence in the wavelength range between about 450 nm and 680 nm. Since the excitation wavelengths of Ce 3+ in the YAG and glass phases of the glass ceramic differ substantially, a suitable laser wavelength can be used to excite only the YAG phase. Thus, an imaging contrast to the surrounding glass matrix is generated. We exploit the crystal dendrites for monitoring the image contrast and improve it by a deconvolution operation of the images. This field of application of LSFM offers great potential, e. g. for fundamental understanding of the microstructuring processes in silicate glasses.
Link, Steffen; Dimitrova, Anna; Krischok, Stefan; Ivanov, Svetlozar;
Reversible sodiation of electrochemically deposited binder- and conducting additive-free Si-O-C composite layers. - In: Energy technology, ISSN 2194-4296, Bd. 10 (2022), 5, 2101164, S. 1-9

Binder- and conducting additive-free Si-O-C composite layers are deposited electrochemically under potentiostatic conditions from sulfolane-based organic electrolyte. Quartz crystal microbalance with damping monitoring is used for evaluation of the layer growth and its physical properties. The sodiation-desodiation performance of the material is afterward explored in Na-ion electrolyte. In terms of specific capacity, rate capability, and long-term electrochemical stability, the experiments confirm the advantages of applying the electrochemically formed Si-O-C structure as anode for Na-ion batteries. The material displays high (722 mAh g^-1) initial reversible capacity at j = 70 mA g^-1 and preserves stable long-term capacity of 540 mAh g^-1 for at least 400 galvanostatic cycles, measured at j = 150 mA g^-1. The observed high performance can be attributed to its improved mechanical stability and accelerated Na-ion transport in the porous anode structure. The origin of the material electroactivity is revealed based on X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of pristine (as deposited), sodiated, and desodiated Si-O-C layers. The evaluation of the spectroscopic data indicates reversible activity of the material due to the complex contribution of carbon and silicon redox centers.
Mohr-Weidenfeller, Laura; Hofmann, Martin; Birli, Oliver; Häcker, Annika-Verena; Reinhardt, Carsten; Manske, Eberhard;
Metrologische Nanopositionierung kombiniert mit Zwei-Photonen-Laserdirektschreiben :
Metrological nanopositioning combined with two-photon direct laser writing. - In: Technisches Messen, ISSN 2196-7113, (2022), S. 1-8

The extension of nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machines (NPM-machines) to fabrication machines by using a femtosecond laser for the implementation of direct laser writing by means of two-photon absorption (2PA) is a promising approach for cross-scale metrological fabrication in the field of lithographic techniques [24]. To this end, a concept for integrating two-photon technology into an NPM machine was developed and implemented, followed by a characterization of the system and targeted investigations to provide evidence for the synergy of the two techniques. On this basis, a new approach to high-throughput micro- and nano-fabrication was developed and investigated, demonstrating new possibilities in cross-scale, high-precision manufacturing [6]. This mix-and-match approach is based on a combination of 2PA laser writing with field emission lithography to fabricate masters for subsequent nanoimprint lithography. Not only the advantages of the large positioning range of the NMM-1 could be highlighted, but also the advantages resulting from the highly accurate positioning. A systematic reduction of the distance between two adjacent lines resulted in a minimum photoresist width of less than 30 nm [16], which can be classified among the smallest distances between two laser-written lines described in the literature [4], [10], [20]. The center-to-center distance of the lines of about 1.695 [my]m at a numerical aperture of 0.16 and a wavelength of 801 nm is only about 56% of the Rayleigh diffraction limit extended for the two-photon process. Thus, for the first time, a resist width far below the diffraction limit could be realized with conventional two-photon laser writing in positive photoresist.
Cheng, Pengfei; Ziegler, Mario; Ripka, Valentin; Wang, Honglei; Pollok, Kilian; Langenhorst, Falko; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter;
Black silver: three-dimensional Ag hybrid plasmonic nanostructures with strong photon coupling for scalable photothermoelectric power generation. - In: ACS applied materials & interfaces, ISSN 1944-8252, Bd. 14 (2022), 14, S. 16894-16900

The conversion of solar energy into electric power has been extensively studied, for example, by photovoltaics. However, photo-thermoelectric (P-TE) conversion as an effective solar-to-electricity conversion process is less studied. Here, we present an efficient full-solar-spectrum plasmonic absorber for scalable P-TE conversion based on a simple integration of light absorber and commercial thermoelectric modules. Our developed light absorber of silica-silver hybrid structures achieves an average absorption of 99.4% in the wavelength range from 200 to 2500 nm, which covers over 98% solar energy in this range. It thus appears fully matte black and is named black silver. The light absorber includes a hierarchical structure with Ag nanoparticles attached on three-dimensional SiO2 nanostructures, resulting in ultrahigh absorption. Strong localized surface plasmon resonance hybridization together with multiple scattering causes the perfect light absorption. Using the black silver as a light absorber for P-TE power generation, it can achieve a peak voltage density as high as 82.5 V m-2 under a solar intensity of 100 mW cm-2, which is large enough to power numerous electronic devices. By assembling 20 thermoelectric modules in series, we test their possibility of practical application, and they can also achieve an average voltage density of 70.66 V m-2. Our work opens up a promising technology that facilitates high-efficiency and scalable solar energy conversion via the P-TE effect.
Schneckenburger, Max; Almeida, Rui; Höfler, Sven; Börret, Rainer;
Material removal by slurry erosion in the robot polishing of optics by polishing slurry nozzles. - In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, Bd. 494/495 (2022), 204257

Robot polishing is increasingly being used in the production of high-end glass work pieces such as astronomy mirrors, lithography mirrors, laser gyroscopes or high-precision coordinate measuring machines. The quality of optical components such as lenses or mirrors can be described by shape errors and surface roughness. Whilst the trend towards sub nanometre level surfaces finishes and features progresses, matching both form and finish coherently in complex parts remains a major challenge. With increasing optic sizes, the stability of the polishing process becomes more and more important. Polishing agent nozzles supply the polishing process with sufficient polishing agent and it is assumed that this slurry erosion has an influence on the material removal. To investigate this, a static test set-up was built. The primary aim of this paper is to point out and raise awareness of the problem of slurry erosion in glass polishing and the influence of slurry erosion by conventional polishing nozzles is shown. From an angle of 30˚, the nozzle turns into a fluid jet tool and removes material independently.