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Höhne, Günter; Weber, Christian; Husung, Stephan
Ilmenau’s contributions to Design Science. - In: Design science, ISSN 2053-4701, Bd. 10 (2024), e2, S. 1-73

Ilmenau is a relatively small town in a beautiful landscape, close to the centre of Germany. Since 1894 it has been the home of a Technical College which after World War II and through some permutations became today’s Technische Universität Ilmenau. For 70 years the university has contributed to Design Science. It is interesting to note that the fundamentals were developed in practice, at the Carl Zeiss company in Jena; it was only later that the new ideas were further developed for academic research and teaching in Ilmenau. The origins at Zeiss Jena still account for the main application area at Technische Universität Ilmenau today: Precision Engineering which, in addition to mechanical, has always included electric, electronic, control, software, and even optical components (“mechatronics” before the term was coined). This article - written by three (out of four in total) of the professors who were and are, respectively, in charge over almost 50 out of the 70 years - tells the story of Design Science in Ilmenau: background, beginnings, development, contributions to research, teaching, and transfer to industry. As Ilmenau was situated in the German Democratic Republic (“East Germany”) between 1949 and 1990, the story is not free of political and societal implications, some of them quite surprising.
Steck, Marco; Husung, Stephan
Surrogate-based calculation method for robust design optimization considering the fatigue probability for variable service loads of eBike drive units. - In: Designs, ISSN 2411-9660, Bd. 8 (2024), 1, 4, S. 1-39

This paper proposes a robust design-optimization approach for eBike drive units that incorporates the highly variable driver-dependent load collectives and system conditions into a fatigue calculation. In an initial step, the relevant influences and loads on the investigated system are examined and reviewed in relation to the current normative requirements. From a methodical viewpoint, this paper presents a surrogate-based simulation-based approach to assess reliability across the entire geometry according to a probabilistic fatigue calculation. The probabilistic evaluation considers the several measured load collectives of different drivers and driving scenarios to enable a robust and type-oriented bike design. In addition to methods of fatigue calculation, this approach also includes common methods of order reduction and reliability-based design optimization. To avoid additional uncertainties in the calculation, this approach considers a complex critical-plane-based multiaxial-fatigue calculation to correctly evaluate the multiaxial and non-proportional stress state across the whole geometry. A data-based surrogate model that supports the fatigue calculation by predicting the load across the given uncertainties is the key to the efficient assessment of the service life of the eBike. Lastly, the identified uncertainties in the design of eBike drive units are investigated and evaluated by this method.
Li, Zirui; Faheem, Faizan; Husung, Stephan
Collaborative Model-based Systems Engineering using Dataspaces and SysML v2. - In: Systems, ISSN 2079-8954, Bd. 12 (2024), 1, 18, S. 1-22

Collaborative Model-based Systems Engineering between companies is becoming increasingly important. The utilization of the modeling possibilities of the standard language SysML v2 and the multilateral data exchange via Dataspaces open new possibilities for efficient collaboration. Based on systemic approaches, a modeling concept for decomposing the system into sub-systems is developed as a basis for the exchange. In addition, based on the analysis of collaboration processes in the context of Systems Engineering, an architectural approach with a SysML editor and Dataspace for the exchange is elaborated. The architecture is implemented on the basis of open-source solutions. The investigations are based on an application example from precision engineering. The potential and challenges are discussed.
Erweiterung eines Wellenprüfgerätes als Demonstrator für digitale Zwillinge. - Ilmenau. - 66 Seiten
Technische Universität Ilmenau, Bachelorarbeit 2023

In der Industrie 4.0 wird die Technologie des digitalen Zwillings als eine Möglichkeit gefördert, ein Objekt in der virtuellen Welt zu replizieren und in einer Vielzahl von Bereichen zu nutzen. Bei der Implementierung von digitalen Zwillingen werden genaue-re und detailliertere Daten benötigt. Wärme und Vibrationen, die während des Betriebs des Demonstrators des digitalen Zwillings entstehen, beeinflussen die Fehler in den geometrischen Messungen. Daher wurde in dieser Bachelorarbeit der Demonstrator erweitert, um Informationen über die durch den Betrieb der Maschine erzeugte Wärme und Vibration durch Sensoren für genauere Messungen und zusätzliche Informationen zu liefern. Zunächst wurde die während des Maschinenbetriebs erzeugte Wärme mit einer Wärmebildkamera gemessen und festgestellt, dass der Drehtischmotor die Hauptwärmequelle ist. Basierend auf diesem Ergebnis wurden ein Vibrationssensor, ein IR-Sensor zur Messung der Temperatur des Drehtischmotors, eine LED-Anzeige und ein Raumtemperaturfühler als Temperatursensoren am Demonstrator installiert und über einen Arduino mit einem PC verbunden, um den Demonstrator zu erweitern. Schließlich wurde eine Methode zur Lösung von Sicherheitsproblemen, die während des Betriebs der Maschine auftreten können, mit Hilfe eines Sicherheitslichtvorhangs und der Installation eines Drucksensors an der Halterung vorgestellt.

Bücker, Silvie;
Systematisierung von Kreislaufwirtschafts-Ansätzen für die zukünftige Produktentwicklung. - Ilmenau. - 108 Seiten
Technische Universität Ilmenau, Masterarbeit 2023

Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Systematisierung und Erweiterung bestehender Prinzipien und Richtlinien für eine kreislaufgerechte Produktentwicklung. Der Arbeitsschwerpunkt liegt hierbei auf Methoden zur Verlängerung der Produktlebensdauer durch die Anwendung von Upgrades. Der Kern dieser Arbeit ist eine Methodik zur Unterstützung der Entwicklung. Einen wesentlichen Schwerpunkt der Methodik bilden Leitfragen. Die Leitfragen dienen dazu, die Upgrade-Fähigkeit eines Produktes zu bewerten, wobei der Fokus auf der Nutzungsphase liegt. Anschließend erfolgt die Darstellung verschiedener möglicher Konzepte zur Umsetzung von Upgrades auf der Architekturebene. Nach der Detaillierung des ausgewählten Konzeptes erfolgt eine abschließende Bewertung der Auswirkungen auf die weiteren Produktlebensphasen. Die Anwendbarkeit der entwickelten Methodik erfolgt anhand eines Laptops als Produktbeispiel. Diese Methodik ist als Ergänzung zu bestehenden Verfahren gedacht und kann bereits bei der Planung von Produkten in der Produktgenerationsentwicklung eingesetzt werden. Auf Basis der Methodik können zielführend Entscheidungen zur Upgradefähigkeit und den Upgrademöglichkeiten für Produkte während der Planung und Konzeption getroffen werden.

Hasse, Alexander; Campanile, Lucio Flavio; Husung, Stephan
An AI-driven design method as basis for teaming. - In: Engineering for a changing world, (2023), 5.4.138, S. 1-9

The product development process could benefit from a synergistic human-machine teaming, potentially shortening product development cycles and improving product performance and sustainability. However, there is a lack of available methods to achieve this goal. A technical product has to satisfy numerous requirements. Due to the variety and complexity of these requirements, the design process is challenging for human engineers. While engineers are supported by various tools (e.g. FEM) for analyzing product properties, tools for computer-aided synthesis of product properties considering the corresponding requirements are still only available in exceptional cases. However, such synthesis capabilities are necessary to qualify a computer-aided tool for productive teaming with engineers. Special methods based on artificial intelligence show a high potential for general computer-aided synthesis methods. This contribution presents an innovative approach in this direction based on topology optimization techniques.
Brix, Torsten; Bücker, Silvie; Husung, Stephan
Sustainability strategies and their influence on the product development of machine tools and special machines. - In: Engineering for a changing world, (2023), 4.2.125, S. 1-19

In the context of product development, the goal of developers is to design products based on a variety of stakeholder needs so that they sufficiently satisfy a wide range of required characteristics. The required properties relate to function, safety, manufacturability, cost, usability, etc. In recent years, sustainability has gained importance as an additional and now indispensable guiding principle in product development due to the rapidly growing global environmental, social and economic challenges. The focus of this paper is on sustainability, which takes into account resource consumption, environmental protection and ecology. The same applies to the circular economy as an essential component of sustainability strategies when it comes to product or material cycles, as well as the targeted repair, reuse, modification, waste prevention and upgrading of products, etc. A product category that is rarely in the public eye is machine tools and special machines. In order to consistently consider sustainability and the associated circular economy in the development of these machines, product developers need practice-oriented and methodically validated decision-making means. The paper discusses and systematizes possible sustainability strategies and their implications from different perspectives, such as business models or applicability.
Mandel, Constantin; Schwarz, Stefan; Brix, Torsten; Albers, Albert; Husung, Stephan
Improving system of objectives maturity through systematic reuse of knowledge using ontology-based knowledge representations. - In: Engineering for a changing world, (2023), 4.2.087, S. 1-16

Technical products are developed to meet the needs of different stakeholders. In addition, various constraints from all phases of the product life cycle have to be considered. In existing work, this information and its dependencies are systematically represented in the so-called system of objectives. A major challenge in modeling the system of objectives is that the necessary information in the system of objectives is often incomplete and uncertain. In addition, this uncertainty and the maturity of the system of objectives cannot be directly quantified because the target state of the system of objectives often cannot be unambiguously described. This research investigates a methodical approach to assess and improve the maturity of the system of objectives. Two means to reduce uncertainty and thus increase the maturity of the system of objectives are the systematic reuse of knowledge and the systematic building of knowledge through verification and validation activities.
Watty, Robert; Brix, Torsten; Hirte, Uwe; Husung, Stephan
Building agile product design competences in student projects. - In: Engineering for a changing world, (2023), 4.2.066, S. 1-11

The increasing complexity of technical solutions caused by constantly changing requirements and competitive situations, has led to the introduction of agile development processes in various domains in order to be able to react faster and more efficient to changes. This paper explores the integration of agile aspects into engineering education to prepare students for the corporate world. Two approaches, a single-stage and a two-stage approach, were implemented and evaluated in student projects at Technische Hochschule Ulm and Technische Universität Ilmenau. The findings reveal that both approaches effectively enhance students' competencies in agile product development. The observations highlight the value of iterative sprints, design thinking, peer learning, focused work, stakeholder involvement and the application of digital tools. Students exhibited increased confidence, independence, and creativity in their development projects. The integration of agile approaches in teaching methodologies proves beneficial in addressing the challenges posed by complex technical solutions and evolving requirements.
Steck, Marco; Husung, Stephan; Schmid, Christoph
Methodical procedure for a surrogate model based fatigue calculation to support the design process of eBike drive units. - In: Engineering for a changing world, (2023), 4.2.053, S. 1-19

In this paper, a method is developed to consider multiaxial load spectra and their variation in a computationally efficient local fatigue calculation procedure. This method is based on an FE data-based surrogate model and is intended to support the simulation-based product design process. To demonstrate their application and necessity, a case study on the design of eBike drive units is presented. For this purpose, the general requirements for the design of eBike drive units as well as the fundamentals of multiaxial fatigue analysis and surrogate modeling are outlined. In addition, a validation process of the surrogate model and its use for fatigue calculation is presented and discussed.