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Hübner, Maria; Miettinen, Mikael; Vainio, Valtteri; Cierpka, Christian; Theska, René; Viitala, Raine;
Behaviour of porous aerostatic bearings with various restrictor permeabilities. - In: 21st euspen international conference & exhibition. - Cranfield, Bedfordshire : euspen, (2021), , S. 115-118

Aerostatic bearings are externally pressurized gas lubricated bearings. Aerostatic bearings are used in high speed and precision motion applications due to low friction and high accuracy. They use a restrictor to limit the flow of the gas into the bearing gap. The presence of the restrictor increases the stability of the bearing against self-excited vibrations. This study focuses on porous graphite restrictors and the effect of permeability on the behaviour of the bearing. The bearings were studied both experimentally and with a simulation model. Flat bearing pads with 37 mm diameter and different restrictor bulk permeability were manufactured and tested. Experimental measurements were conducted on a test setup allowing loading of the bearing against a ground steel plate. The load was supplied with a series of weights. The air gap was measured with a linear length gauge, measuring the displacement of the air bearing. The pressure was controlled with a regulator and the flow rate into the bearing was measured. In order to build an accurate simulation model, the permeability of the used material was calculated from the measured short circuit flow through each 4.5 mm thick sample. The flow in the porous material and in the restrictive layer follows Darcy's law, the flow in the air gap is described by the Navier-Stokes-equation. The simulation model was validated with experimental results. Measurement and simulation results include the air gap height, load and flow rate at a supply pressure of 0.4 MPa. According to previous research and preliminary results the surface restrictor layer has increased the resistance of the bearing to self-excited airhammer vibration, leading to a higher load capacity.



Otto, Henning;
Influence of thermal stratification on vertical natural convection - experimental investigations on the example of thermal energy storage systems. - In: Physics of fluids. - [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics2, ISSN 1089-7666, Bd. 33 (2021), 8, S. 083614-1-083614-12

Stratified thermal energy storages (TESs) are a promising solution for the large-scale energy storage problem of surplus renewable energy. Recent studies have shown parasitic convection occurring in near-wall regions inside such storage tanks, decreasing the working fluid's thermal stratification and reducing their exergy efficiency. This paper presents an experimental investigation of vertical convective flows in thermally stratified environments to complement the theoretical studies in this field. Specifically, we consider natural convection within a stratified laminar flow driven not by active heating but by the temperature gradient along a vertical wall, as is the case in real TES systems. The insights gained into the fundamental physical mechanisms of stratified vertical convection can promote efficiency improvements in TES systems. Therefore, we combine multiple particle image velocimetry and temperature measurements at different heights and thus obtain high-resolution vector fields of the entire wall jet flow and vertical temperature profiles for a TES model experiment. We appropriately modify scaling arguments found in the literature to develop a theory specifically suited to the experimental setup. The experimental data agree well with the modified theory. The results show two laminar counter-directed jets next to the vertical sidewall. In regions with high temperature gradients, the wall jets slow down, and flow reversals occur next to them. Moreover, the wall jets are asymmetric due to temperature-dependent fluid properties in conjunction with the ambient fluid stratification. In the stratification's upper, hot part, the wall jet is thinner and faster than the bottom jet in the cold region.



https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0056232
Cierpka, Christian; Otto, Henning; Poll, Constanze; Hüther, Jonas; Jeschke, Sebastian; Mäder, Patrick;
SmartPIV: flow velocity estimates by smartphones for education and field studies. - In: Experiments in fluids. - Berlin : Springer2, ISSN 1432-1114, Bd. 62 (2021), 8, S. 1-13

In this paper, a smartphone application is presented that was developed to lower the barrier to introduce particle image velocimetry (PIV) in lab courses. The first benefit is that a PIV system using smartphones and a continuous wave (cw-) laser is much cheaper than a conventional system and thus much more affordable for universities. The second benefit is that the design of the menus follows that of modern camera apps, which are intuitively used. Thus, the system is much less complex and costly than typical systems, and our experience showed that students have much less reservations to work with the system and to try different parameters. Last but not least the app can be applied in the field. The relative uncertainty was shown to be less than 8%, which is reasonable for quick velocity estimates. An analysis of the computational time necessary for the data evaluation showed that with the current implementation the app is capable of providing smooth live display vector fields of the flow. This might further increase the use of modern measurement techniques in industry and education.



https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-021-03262-z
Kolesnikov, Yuri; Kalis, H.;
Electrically driven cylindrical free shear flows under an axial uniform magnetic field. - In: Magnetohydrodynamics. - Salaspils : Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Latvia, Bd. 57 (2021), 2, S. 229-250

We consider a mathematical model of two-dimensional electrically driven laminar axisymmetric circular free shear flows in a cylindrical vessel under the action of an applied axial uniform magnetic field. The mathematical approach is based on the studies by J.C.R. Hunt and W.E. Williams (J. Fluid. Mech., 31, 705, 1968). We solve a system of stationary partial differential equations with two unknown functions of velocity and induced magnetic field. The flows are generated as a result of the interaction of the electric current injected into the liquid and the applied field using one or two pairs of concentric annular electrodes located apart on the end walls. Two lateral free shear layers and two Hartmann layers on the end walls and a quasi-potential flow core between them emerge when the Hartmann number Ha >> 1. As a result, almost all injected current passes through these layers. Depending on the direction of the current injection, coinciding or two counter flows between the end walls are realized. The Hartmann number varies in a range from 2 to 300. When a moderate magnetic field (Ha = 50) is reached, the flow rate and the induced magnetic field flux cease to depend on the magnitude of the applied field but depend on the injected electric current value. Increasing magnetic field leads only to inner restructuring of the flows. Redistributions of velocities and induced magnetic fields, electric current density versus Hartmann number are analyzed.



https://doi.org/10.22364/mhd.57.2.8
Belyaev, Ivan A.; Pyatnitskaya, Natalia Yu.; Luchinkin, Nikita A.; Krasnov, Dmitry; Kolesnikov, Yuri; Listratov, Yaroslav I.; Mironov, I.S.; Zikanov, Oleg; Sviridov, Evgeniy V.;
Flat liquid metal jet affected by a transverse magnetic field. - In: Magnetohydrodynamics. - Salaspils : Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Latvia, Bd. 57 (2021), 2, S. 211-222

A liquid metal flat jet immersed in a square duct under the influence of a transverse magnetic field is studied experimentally. Two cases are considered: when the applied magnetic field is oriented parallel (coplanar field) or perpendicularly (transverse field) to the initial plane of the jet. The main goal of the study is to investigate the mean flow characteristics and the stages of the jet's transformation. Signals of streamwise velocity at different locations are measured, which allows us to determine average velocity profiles and spatial-temporal characteristics of the velocity field. The two considered configurations are directly compared under the same flow regimes, with the same equipment.



https://doi.org/10.22364/mhd.57.2.6
Barnkob, Rune; Cierpka, Christian; Chen, Minqian; Sachs, Sebastian; Mäder, Patrick; Rossi, Massimiliano;
Defocus particle tracking : a comparison of methods based on model functions, cross-correlation, and neural networks. - In: Measurement science and technology. - Bristol : IOP Publ.2, ISSN 1361-6501, Bd. 32 (2021), 9, S. 1-14

Defocus particle tracking (DPT) has gained increasing importance for its use to determine particle trajectories in all three dimensions with a single-camera system, as typical for a standard microscope, the workhorse of todays ongoing biomedical revolution. DPT methods derive the depth coordinates of particle images from the different defocusing patterns that they show when observed in a volume much larger than the respective depth of field. Therefore it has become common for state-of-the-art methods to apply image recognition techniques. Two of the most commonly and widely used DPT approaches are the application of (astigmatism) particle image model functions (MF methods) and the normalized cross-correlations between measured particle images and reference templates (CC methods). Though still young in the field, the use of neural networks (NN methods) is expected to play a significant role in future and more complex defocus tracking applications. To assess the different strengths of such defocus tracking approaches, we present in this work a general and objective assessment of their performances when applied to synthetic and experimental images of different degrees of astigmatism, noise levels, and particle image overlapping. We show that MF methods work very well in low-concentration cases, while CC methods are more robust and provide better performance in cases of larger particle concentration and thus stronger particle image overlap. The tested NN methods generally showed the lowest performance, however, in comparison to the MF and CC methods, they are yet in an early stage and have still great potential to develop within the field of DPT.



https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6501/abfef6
Lyu, Ze; Boeck, Thomas; Karcher, Christian;
Electromagnetic interaction between a permanent magnet and a sphere moving in liquid metal. - In: Experiments in fluids. - Berlin : Springer2, ISSN 1432-1114, Volume 62 (2021), issue 5, article 109, Seite 1-16

We present a series of model experiments where an electrically non-conductive solid sphere moves inside a vertical column of liquid alloy GaInSn. The experimental setup consists of the liquid metal container, the sphere driving system and the permanent magnet with the attached force sensor. The sphere moves at a controllable constant velocity U0 and follows a straight route, which in turn generates a liquid metal flow around the sphere. This flow interacts with the localized magnetic field of the permanent magnet, and thus a weak reaction force on the magnet is generated. The force sensor attached on the magnet has a resolution of the order 10^-6. Upon elimination of high frequency noise, reproducible time-dependent signals for the forces on the magnet are obtained in the experiments for several Reynolds numbers Re between 160 and 2000. The force component Fz on the magnet parallel to the direction of particle motion exhibits a typical two-peak structure with different peak heights, whereas the transverse force component Fx resembles an antisymmetric pulse. The results demonstrate that the force sensor can detect the presence of a moving particle in a quiescent conducting liquid. They also show that the structure of the Fx signal can be reproduced with less variation and is less sensitive to the Reynolds number than the Fz signal. Moreover, the structure and magnitude of time-dependent Lorentz force signals can be reasonably predicted by a numerical model.



https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-021-03209-4
Tabaei Kazerooni, Hamid; Zinchenko, Georgy; Schumacher, Jörg; Cierpka, Christian;
Electrical voltage by electron spin-vorticity coupling in laminar ducts. - In: Physical review fluids. - College Park, MD : APS2, ISSN 2469-990X, Bd. 6 (2021), 4, S. 043703-1-043703-14

We report a linear scaling law for an electrical voltage as a function of the pressure drop in capillary pipes and ducts. This voltage is generated by a process which is termed spin hydrodynamic generation (SHDG), a result of the collective electron spin-coupling to the vorticity field in the laminar flow in combination with an inverse spin-Hall effect. We study this phenomenon in laminar duct flows with different width-to-height aspect ratios ranging from 1 (square ducts) to infinite (two dimensional channels). First, we analytically solve the governing Valet-Fert spin diffusion equations for the SHDG by means of the method of small parameters together with proper boundary conditions for the set of inhomogeneous elliptic partial differential equations. Second, the proposed linear scaling law is validated through a series of experiments using capillary tubes with rectangular and square cross sections. The experimental results show very good agreement to the analytically found scaling law. A subsequent substitution of the bulk velocity of the laminar wall-bounded flows by the pressure drop reveals a universal scaling law for the electrical voltage that incorporates all pipe and duct geometries which we could study in our experiments. Finally, the efficiency of the system is estimated for circular pipes, rectangular and square ducts. This study shows that the efficiency of a spin hydrodynamic generator is the same for a circular pipe and a square duct with the same diameter and height, respectively. Hence, due to the ease of manufacturing and the possibility to scale the experiments up to parallel settings in a compact form, micro-channels with a square cross section seem to be the optimum for a spin hydrodynamic generator.



https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevFluids.6.043703
Moller, Sebastian; Resagk, Christian; Cierpka, Christian;
Long-time experimental investigation of turbulent superstructures in Rayleigh-Bénard convection by noninvasive simultaneous measurements of temperature and velocity fields. - In: Experiments in fluids. - Berlin : Springer2, ISSN 1432-1114, Volume 62 (2021), issue 4, article 64, Seite 1-18

Large-scale mean patterns in Rayleigh-Bénard convection, also referred to as turbulent superstructures, have mainly been studied by means of numerical simulations so far, but experimental investigations are still rare. However, the analysis of turbulent superstructures, which are of great importance due to their effect on the local transport of heat and momentum, require both numerical and experimental data. Therefore, within the scope of this study measurements were performed in the horizontal mid plane and in a horizontal plane closer to the top of a Rayleigh-Bénard cell with an aspect ratio of [Gamma]=l/h=25, thereby showing the initial formation of turbulent superstructures and their long-time rearrangement. The turbulent superstructures are investigated experimentally by noninvasive simultaneous measurements of temperature and velocity fields, using the color signal of thermochromic liquid crystals (TLCs) for the evaluation of the temperature and their temporal displacement for the determination of all three velocity components in the measurement planes via stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (stereo-PIV). Applying this measuring technique it is demonstrated that the time-averaging of instantaneous temperature and velocity fields uncovers the turbulent superstructures in both fields. Furthermore, the combination of the temperature and velocity data is used to characterize the local heat flux quantified by the local Nusselt number, which confirms that the turbulent superstructures strongly enhance the heat transfer in Rayleigh-Bénard convection.



https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-020-03107-1
Angermeier, Sebastian;
Energy-efficient operation of vapor compression systems applied to the battery thermal management of electric buses. - Düren : Shaker Verlag, 2021. - XIV, 187 Seiten. - (Schriftenreihe des MAHLE Doktorandenprogramms ; Band 8)
Technische Universität Ilmenau, Dissertation 2021

ISBN 978-3-8440-8009-4

In dieser Arbeit wird eine energieeffiziente Betriebsstrategie eines Batterie-Thermomanagementsystems von Elektrobussen untersucht. Dabei wird sowohl die flüssigkeitsbasierte Batterietemperaturregelung als auch der ideale Betrieb von Dampfkompressionssystemen im Allgemeinen betrachtet. Um das thermische Verhalten der Batterie und die erforderliche Kühllast zu untersuchen, wird eine neuartige transiente Berechnungsmethode des thermischen Batteriesystems vorgeschlagen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine ausreichende Temperierung der Zelltemperatur über eine quasistationäre Regelung. Folglich kann die Batteriekühlanlage unter stationären Bedingungen betrieben werden, um die Anforderungen an die Batterietemperatur zu erfüllen. Zur Optimierung der Energieeffizienz der Batteriekühlanlage wird eine detaillierte theoretische und experimentelle Analyse des idealen stationären Betriebs der Kompressionskältemaschine (KKM) für eine Serienkühleinheit der Mahle GmbH durchgeführt. Basierend auf den Ergebnissen wird eine neue modellbasierte Sollwertoptimierungsmethode vorgeschlagen, um die KKM bei idealen Einstellungen zu betreiben. Für quasistationäre Anwendungen stellt die vorgeschlagene Methode eine vielversprechende Alternative zur Extremwertoptimierung oder anderen fortschrittlichen Methoden dar, die zwar genauer sind, aber eine hohe Konvergenzzeit benötigen.