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Zheng, Jincan; Li, Rongzhe; Guo, Shengrong; Kolesnikov, Yuri; Ni, Mingjiu; Wang, Xiaodong
A dynamic method for online measurement and calibrating with Lorentz force velocimetry. - In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 1361-6501, Bd. 35 (2024), 6, 065008, S. 1-9

Our previous study (Zheng et al 2020 Metall. Mater. Trans. B 51 558–69; Zheng et al 2020 Acta Metall. Sin.56 929–36) reports a non-invasive in-situ measurement technology using Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) to quantitatively measure the meniscus velocity of molten steel online. However, effective signal recognition from complex environment noise and determination of zero-point calibration in harsh metallurgical processing is an essentially challenging task and indeed needs further exploration. In this paper, a method of combining double probe arrangement with real-time differential processing technology was proposed, the twin design structure not only enables the measurement of ∼mN Lorentz forces, but also has significant characteristics of environmental tolerance. The Lorentz force signal caused by conductor motion can be accurately calculated through a differential method, meaning that the problem of zero compensation in industrial online measurement can be effectively overcome. Moreover, based on the functional correlation between the Lorentz force and the parameter of the conductor to be measured, a method of the probes moving variably and actively and their data difference ratio processing was adopted, so as to achieve dynamic calibration during online measurement. This measurement strategy provides a new approach for LFV to achieve online dynamic measurement and online calibration, and provides technical support for electromagnetic measurement technology towards engineering applications.



https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6501/ad2f06
Hannappel, Thomas; Shekarabi, Sahar; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Runge, Erich; Hofmann, Jan Philipp; Krol, Roel van de; May, Matthias M.; Paszuk, Agnieszka; Hess, Franziska; Bergmann, Arno; Bund, Andreas; Cierpka, Christian; Dreßler, Christian; Dionigi, Fabio; Friedrich, Dennis; Favaro, Marco; Krischok, Stefan; Kurniawan, Mario; Lüdge, Kathy; Lei, Yong; Roldán Cuenya, Beatriz; Schaaf, Peter; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Schmidt, W. Gero; Strasser, Peter; Unger, Eva; Montoya, Manuel Vasquez; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Hongbin
Integration of multi-junction absorbers and catalysts for efficient solar-driven artificial leaf structures : a physical and materials science perspective. - In: Solar RRL, ISSN 2367-198X, Bd. 0 (2024), 0, S. 1-88

Artificial leaves could be the breakthrough technology to overcome the limitations of storage and mobility through the synthesis of chemical fuels from sunlight, which will be an essential component of a sustainable future energy system. However, the realization of efficient solar-driven artificial leaf structures requires integrated specialized materials such as semiconductor absorbers, catalysts, interfacial passivation, and contact layers. To date, no competitive system has emerged due to a lack of scientific understanding, knowledge-based design rules, and scalable engineering strategies. Here, we will discuss competitive artificial leaf devices for water splitting, focusing on multi-absorber structures to achieve solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiencies exceeding 15%. A key challenge is integrating photovoltaic and electrochemical functionalities in a single device. Additionally, optimal electrocatalysts for intermittent operation at photocurrent densities of 10-20 mA cm^-2 must be immobilized on the absorbers with specifically designed interfacial passivation and contact layers, so-called buried junctions. This minimizes voltage and current losses and prevents corrosive side reactions. Key challenges include understanding elementary steps, identifying suitable materials, and developing synthesis and processing techniques for all integrated components. This is crucial for efficient, robust, and scalable devices. Here, we discuss and report on corresponding research efforts to produce green hydrogen with unassisted solar-driven (photo-)electrochemical devices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



https://doi.org/10.1002/solr.202301047
Sharifi Ghazijahani, Mohammad; Cierpka, Christian
Spatio-temporal dynamics of superstructures and vortices in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection. - In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1089-7666, Bd. 36 (2024), 3, 035120, S. 035120-1-035120-19

Understanding turbulent thermal convection is essential for modeling many natural phenomena. This study investigates the spatiotemporal dynamics of the vortical structures in the mid-plane of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in SF6 via experiments. For this, a Rayleigh-Bénard cell of aspect ratio 10 is placed inside a pressure vessel and pressurized up to 1, 1.5, and 2.5 bar in order to reach Rayleigh numbers of Ra = 9.4 × 10^5, 2.0 × 10^6, and 5.5 × 10^6, respectively. For all three cases, the Prandtl number is Pr = 0.79 and Δ T ≈ 7 K. Then, stereoscopic particle image velocimetry is conducted to measure the three velocity components in the horizontal-mid-plane for 5.78 × 10^3 free fall times. For the given aspect ratio, the flow is no longer dominated by the side walls of the cell and turbulent superstructures that show a two-dimensional repetitive organization form. These superstructures show diverse shapes with faster dissipation rates as Ra increases. Out-of-plane vortices are the main feature of the flow. As Ra increases, the number of these vortices also increases, and their size shrinks. However, their total number is almost constant for each Ra through the measurement period. Furthermore, their occurrence is random and does not depend on whether the flow is upward-heated, downward-cooled, or horizontally directed. Vortex tracking was applied to measure lifetime, displacement, and traveled distance of these structures. The relation between lifetime and traveled distance is rather linear. Interestingly, in the vortex centers, the out-of-plane momentum transport is larger in comparison to the bulk flow. Therefore, these vortices will play a major role in the heat transport in such flows.



https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0191403
Niehaus, Konstantin;
Experimentelle Untersuchung des Skalenverhaltens bei Kondensation und Verdampfen in einem generischen Fahrzeugscheinwerfer. - Ilmenau, 2024. - 1 Online-Ressource (xxiii, 178 Seiten)
Technische Universität Ilmenau, Dissertation 2024

Diese Promotionsschrift befasst sich mit der experimentellen Untersuchung des Wärmetransports und Stofftransfers feuchter Luft mit Phasentransition an einer Oberfläche. Eine Motivation hierfür gibt unter anderem das vermehrte Auftreten von unerwünschter Kondensation innerhalb von Automobilscheinwerfern. Hierzu wird ein experimenteller Aufbau vorgestellt, der die physikalischen Prozesse abbildet, die für die Tropfenkondensation und die Verdampfung von Tropfen relevant sind. Der in dieser Arbeit untersuchte Parameterbereich umfasst 200 < Re < 1300, bei 0 < Gr < 108 und relative Luftfeuchten von 0.19 < ϕein < 0.85 (bei 25 ◦C). Das Geschwindigkeitsfeld im Zellinneren wurde mittels tomografischer Particle Image Velocimetry gemessen. Die Ergebnisse einer probabilistischen Analyse und einer Hauptkomponentenanalyse werden präsentiert. Hierbei zeigt sich, dass die erzwungene Strömung den internen Wärme- und Stofftransport dominiert, höhere Temperaturgradienten jedoch zu einer Stabilisierung beziehungsweise Symmetrieerhöhung der großskaligen Strömung führen. Zur Bestimmung des Massentransfers beim Kondensieren und Verdampfen werden drei Messmethoden vorgestellt. Die erste bilanziert die Menge an Wasser an Ein- und Auslass, die zweite wiegt die Wassermasse direkt, während die dritte Konturen einzelner Tropfen mittels eines Mikroskops misst. Die ersten beiden liefern Aussagen über die globale Entwicklung der Masse auf der Kühlplatte. Die optische Methode eröffnet Einblicke in die lokale Tropfendynamik. Auf Basis dieser Messergebnisse wird die Skalierung der Sherwood-Zahl in Abhängigkeit von der Reynolds-Zahl und der relativen Luftfeuchte am Einlass untersucht. Zusätzlich wurde eine dimensionslose Beschreibung des Anwachsens und Schrumpfens von Einzeltropfen auf der Oberfläche formuliert. Die Messergebnisse des sensiblen und des latenten Wärmestroms werden abschließend in einem 1D-Modell reproduziert, validiert und auf den konkreten Betriebsfall eines Serienscheinwerfers angewendet.



https://doi.org/10.22032/dbt.59510
Käufer, Theo; Cierpka, Christian
Volumetric Lagrangian temperature and velocity measurements with thermochromic liquid crystals. - In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 1361-6501, Bd. 35 (2024), 3, 035301, S. 1-11

We propose a Lagrangian method for simultaneous, volumetric temperature and velocity measurements. As tracer particles for both quantities, we employ encapsulated thermochromic liquid crystals (TLCs). We discuss the challenges arising from color imaging of small particles and present measurements in an equilateral hexagonal-shaped convection cell of height h = 60 mm and distance between the parallel side walls w = 10^4 mm, which corresponds to an aspect ratio Γ = 1.73. As fluid, we use a water-glycerol mixture to match the density of the TLC particles. We propose a densely-connected neural network, trained on calibration data, to predict the temperature for individual particles based on their particle image and position in the color camera images, which achieves uncertainties below 0.2 K over a temperature range of 3 K. We use Shake-the-Box to determine the 3D position and velocity of the particles and couple it with our temperature measurement approach. We validate our approach by adjusting a stable temperature stratification and comparing our measured temperatures with the theoretical results. Finally, we apply our approach to thermal convection at Rayleigh number Ra = 3.4 × 10^7 and Prandtl number Pr = 10.6. We can visualize detaching plumes in individual temperature and convective heat transfer snapshots. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our approach allows us to compute statistics of the convective heat transfer and briefly validate our results against the literature.



https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6501/ad16d1
Xu, Lin; Han, Ze-feng; Karcher, Christian; Wang, En-gang
Melt flow, heat transfer and solidification in a flexible thin slab continuous casting mold with vertical-combined electromagnetic braking. - In: Journal of iron and steel research, international, ISSN 2210-3988, Bd. 31 (2024), 2, S. 401-415

During continuous casting of steel slabs, the application of electromagnetic braking technology (EMBr) provides an effective tool to influence solidification by controlling the pattern of melt flow in the mold. Thus, the quality of the final product can be improved considerably. A new electromagnetic braking (EMBr) method, named vertical-combined electromagnetic braking (VC-EMBr), is proposed to be applied to a flexible thin slab casting (FTSC) mold. To evaluate the beneficial effects of the VC-EMBr, the melt flow, heat transfer, and solidification processes in the FTSC mold are studied by means of numerical simulations. In detail, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model together with an enthalpy-porosity approach was used. The numerical findings are compared with respective simulations using the traditional Ruler-EMBr. The results demonstrate that the application of the VC-EMBr contributes significantly to preventing relative slab defects. In contrast to the Ruler-EMBr, the additional vertical magnetic poles of the VC-EMBr preferentially suppress the direct impact of jet flow on the narrow face of FSTC mold and considerably diminish the level fluctuation near the meniscus region. For instance, by applying a magnetic flux density of 0.3 T, the maximum amplitude of meniscus deflection reduces by about 80%. Moreover, the braking effect of the VC-EMBr effectively improves the homogeneity of temperature distribution in the upper recirculation region and increases the solidified shell thickness along the casting direction. On this basis, the newly proposed VC-EMBr shows a beneficial effect in preventing relative slab defects for FTSC thin slab continuous casting.



https://doi.org/10.1007/s42243-023-01062-9
Li, Pan-Xin; Luo, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Lu; Song, Jia-Jun; Li, Ben-Wen; Karcher, Christian
Numerical research for the effect of magnetic field on convective transport process of molten salt in Rayleigh-Bénard system. - In: International journal of thermal sciences, ISSN 1778-4166, Bd. 195 (2024), 108605, S. 1-21

The effects of external applied magnetic field on heat and momentum transfer of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a closed cavity filled with electrically conductive molten salt are investigated by direct numerical simulation. Such arrangements are of strong interest in the context of thermal energy storage systems from renewable resources. To discretize the governing equations, the Chebyshev collocation spectral method is developed. A series of numerical results for 5000 ≤ Ra ≤ 10^6, 5 ≤ Pr ≤ 20 and 0 ≤ Ha ≤ 150 are obtained. First, we conduct two-dimensional numerical simulations to investigate the effect of Pr without and with magnetic field and find that Pr has little influence on heat and momentum transfer. Then, taking Pr as a fixed value of 7 and considering the effects of Ra and Ha, 2D and 3D direct numerical simulations are conducted. From both 2D and 3D numerical results, we conclude that, the heat and momentum transfer are enhanced with Ra at Ha = 0 and the fluid motion is stabilized by magnetic field at Ha 0. More phenomena of heat transfer and fluid flow, together with scaling correlations of Nu ∼ Ra, Nu ∼ Re for Rayleigh-Bénard convection without magnetic field, and, Nu ∼ RaHa and Re ∼ RaHa for Rayleigh-Bénard convection with magnetic field, are revealed under specified ranges of Ra and Ha.



https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2023.108605
Belyaev, Ivan A.; Chernysh, Denis Yu.; Luchinkin, Nikita A.; Krasnov, Dmitry; Kolesnikov, Yuri; Listratov, Yaroslav I.
Formation of the inlet flow profile for passive control of a magnetohydrodynamic liquid-metal flow in a channel. - In: High temperature, ISSN 1608-3156, Bd. 61 (2023), 3, S. 417-428

The paper describes an experimental attempt to affect the flow of liquid metal using a relatively small perturbation at an inlet to a long channel. The purpose is to form a flow structure which is stable in a strong magnetic field at high heat loads, enhance heat transfer, and achieve more predictable flow parameters. It is demonstrated that an obstacle in the form of a rod located transverse to the flow and parallel to the applied magnetic field and installed at the inlet can induce perturbations in the form of regular vortices observed along the flow at lengths as great as several tens of channel hydraulic diameters. The experiments confirm that thus generated vortices considerably change the structure of the isothermal MHD flow. In the case of mixed convection, such vortices suppress the development large-scale thermogravitational fluctuations in the flow and enhance heat transfer under certain flow conditions.



https://doi.org/10.1134/S0018151X23030033
Kolesnikov, Yuri; Kalis, Harijs
Electrically driven plane free shear flow in a duct under an oblique transverse uniform magnetic field. - In: Magnetohydrodynamics, Bd. 59 (2023), 2, S. 119-134

A mathematical model of electrically driven laminar free shear flows in a straight duct under the action of an applied oblique transverse uniform magnetic field is considered. The mathematical approach is similar to that used in [1]. A system of stationary partial differential equations with two unknown functions of velocity and induced magnetic field is solved. Three different cases of electric current supply to the liquid are considered. An electric current is introduced into the liquid first by one pair of linear electrodes, and in two other cases by two pairs of electrodes located on the upper and lower walls of the duct. The cases are analyzed when the angle of inclination of the magnetic field vector to these walls is ϕ0 = π/4. Depending on the direction of the electric current supplied to the pairs of electrodes, two coinciding in direction or two opposite inclined flows are driven in the zone between these walls. Increasing the magnetic field only leads to an internal rearrangement of the flows. The Hartmann number Ha ranges from 1 to 10, at which MHD effects distinctly enough are already displayed.



https://doi.org/0.22364/mhd.59.2.1
Sharifi Ghazijahani, Mohammad; Heyder, Florian; Schumacher, Jörg; Cierpka, Christian
Spatial prediction of the turbulent unsteady von Kármán vortex street using echo state networks. - In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1089-7666, Bd. 35 (2023), 11, 115141, S. 115141-1-115141-15

The spatial prediction of the turbulent flow of the unsteady von Kármán vortex street behind a cylinder at Re = 1000 is studied. For this, an echo state network (ESN) with 6000 neurons was trained on the raw, low-spatial resolution data from particle image velocimetry. During prediction, the ESN is provided one half of the spatial domain of the fluid flow. The task is to infer the missing other half. Four different decompositions termed forward, backward, forward-backward, and vertical were examined to show whether there exists a favorable region of the flow for which the ESN performs best. Also, it was checked whether the flow direction has an influence on the network's performance. In order to measure the quality of the predictions, we choose the vertical velocity prediction of direction (VVPD). Furthermore, the ESN's two main hyperparameters, leaking rate (LR) and spectral radius (SR), were optimized according to the VVPD values of the corresponding network output. Moreover, each hyperparameter combination was run for 24 random reservoir realizations. Our results show that VVPD values are highest for LR ≈ 0.6, and quite independent of SR values for all four prediction approaches. Furthermore, maximum VVPD values of ≈ 0.83 were achieved for backward, forward-backward, and vertical predictions while for the forward case VVPDmax = 0.74 was achieved. We found that the predicted vertical velocity fields predominantly align with their respective ground truth. The best overall accordance was found for backward and forward-backward scenarios. In summary, we conclude that the stable quality of the reconstructed fields over a long period of time, along with the simplicity of the machine learning algorithm (ESN), which relied on coarse experimental data only, demonstrates the viability of spatial prediction as a suitable method for machine learning application in turbulence.



https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0172722