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Niehaus, Konstantin;
Experimentelle Untersuchung des Skalenverhaltens bei Kondensation und Verdampfen in einem generischen Fahrzeugscheinwerfer. - Ilmenau, 2024. - 1 Online-Ressource (xxiii, 178 Seiten)
Technische Universität Ilmenau, Dissertation 2024

Diese Promotionsschrift befasst sich mit der experimentellen Untersuchung des Wärmetransports und Stofftransfers feuchter Luft mit Phasentransition an einer Oberfläche. Eine Motivation hierfür gibt unter anderem das vermehrte Auftreten von unerwünschter Kondensation innerhalb von Automobilscheinwerfern. Hierzu wird ein experimenteller Aufbau vorgestellt, der die physikalischen Prozesse abbildet, die für die Tropfenkondensation und die Verdampfung von Tropfen relevant sind. Der in dieser Arbeit untersuchte Parameterbereich umfasst 200 < Re < 1300, bei 0 < Gr < 108 und relative Luftfeuchten von 0.19 < ϕein < 0.85 (bei 25 ◦C). Das Geschwindigkeitsfeld im Zellinneren wurde mittels tomografischer Particle Image Velocimetry gemessen. Die Ergebnisse einer probabilistischen Analyse und einer Hauptkomponentenanalyse werden präsentiert. Hierbei zeigt sich, dass die erzwungene Strömung den internen Wärme- und Stofftransport dominiert, höhere Temperaturgradienten jedoch zu einer Stabilisierung beziehungsweise Symmetrieerhöhung der großskaligen Strömung führen. Zur Bestimmung des Massentransfers beim Kondensieren und Verdampfen werden drei Messmethoden vorgestellt. Die erste bilanziert die Menge an Wasser an Ein- und Auslass, die zweite wiegt die Wassermasse direkt, während die dritte Konturen einzelner Tropfen mittels eines Mikroskops misst. Die ersten beiden liefern Aussagen über die globale Entwicklung der Masse auf der Kühlplatte. Die optische Methode eröffnet Einblicke in die lokale Tropfendynamik. Auf Basis dieser Messergebnisse wird die Skalierung der Sherwood-Zahl in Abhängigkeit von der Reynolds-Zahl und der relativen Luftfeuchte am Einlass untersucht. Zusätzlich wurde eine dimensionslose Beschreibung des Anwachsens und Schrumpfens von Einzeltropfen auf der Oberfläche formuliert. Die Messergebnisse des sensiblen und des latenten Wärmestroms werden abschließend in einem 1D-Modell reproduziert, validiert und auf den konkreten Betriebsfall eines Serienscheinwerfers angewendet.



https://doi.org/10.22032/dbt.59510
Käufer, Theo; Cierpka, Christian
Volumetric Lagrangian temperature and velocity measurements with thermochromic liquid crystals. - In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 1361-6501, Bd. 35 (2024), 3, 035301, S. 1-11

We propose a Lagrangian method for simultaneous, volumetric temperature and velocity measurements. As tracer particles for both quantities, we employ encapsulated thermochromic liquid crystals (TLCs). We discuss the challenges arising from color imaging of small particles and present measurements in an equilateral hexagonal-shaped convection cell of height h = 60 mm and distance between the parallel side walls w = 10^4 mm, which corresponds to an aspect ratio Γ = 1.73. As fluid, we use a water-glycerol mixture to match the density of the TLC particles. We propose a densely-connected neural network, trained on calibration data, to predict the temperature for individual particles based on their particle image and position in the color camera images, which achieves uncertainties below 0.2 K over a temperature range of 3 K. We use Shake-the-Box to determine the 3D position and velocity of the particles and couple it with our temperature measurement approach. We validate our approach by adjusting a stable temperature stratification and comparing our measured temperatures with the theoretical results. Finally, we apply our approach to thermal convection at Rayleigh number Ra = 3.4 × 10^7 and Prandtl number Pr = 10.6. We can visualize detaching plumes in individual temperature and convective heat transfer snapshots. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our approach allows us to compute statistics of the convective heat transfer and briefly validate our results against the literature.



https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6501/ad16d1
Li, Pan-Xin; Luo, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Lu; Song, Jia-Jun; Li, Ben-Wen; Karcher, Christian
Numerical research for the effect of magnetic field on convective transport process of molten salt in Rayleigh-Bénard system. - In: International journal of thermal sciences, ISSN 1778-4166, Bd. 195 (2024), 108605, S. 1-21

The effects of external applied magnetic field on heat and momentum transfer of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a closed cavity filled with electrically conductive molten salt are investigated by direct numerical simulation. Such arrangements are of strong interest in the context of thermal energy storage systems from renewable resources. To discretize the governing equations, the Chebyshev collocation spectral method is developed. A series of numerical results for 5000 ≤ Ra ≤ 10^6, 5 ≤ Pr ≤ 20 and 0 ≤ Ha ≤ 150 are obtained. First, we conduct two-dimensional numerical simulations to investigate the effect of Pr without and with magnetic field and find that Pr has little influence on heat and momentum transfer. Then, taking Pr as a fixed value of 7 and considering the effects of Ra and Ha, 2D and 3D direct numerical simulations are conducted. From both 2D and 3D numerical results, we conclude that, the heat and momentum transfer are enhanced with Ra at Ha = 0 and the fluid motion is stabilized by magnetic field at Ha 0. More phenomena of heat transfer and fluid flow, together with scaling correlations of Nu ∼ Ra, Nu ∼ Re for Rayleigh-Bénard convection without magnetic field, and, Nu ∼ RaHa and Re ∼ RaHa for Rayleigh-Bénard convection with magnetic field, are revealed under specified ranges of Ra and Ha.



https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2023.108605
Xu, Lin; Han, Ze-feng; Karcher, Christian; Wang, En-gang
Melt flow, heat transfer and solidification in a flexible thin slab continuous casting mold with vertical-combined electromagnetic braking. - In: Journal of iron and steel research, international, ISSN 2210-3988, Bd. 0 (2023), 0, insges. 15 S.

During continuous casting of steel slabs, the application of electromagnetic braking technology (EMBr) provides an effective tool to influence solidification by controlling the pattern of melt flow in the mold. Thus, the quality of the final product can be improved considerably. A new electromagnetic braking (EMBr) method, named vertical-combined electromagnetic braking (VC-EMBr), is proposed to be applied to a flexible thin slab casting (FTSC) mold. To evaluate the beneficial effects of the VC-EMBr, the melt flow, heat transfer, and solidification processes in the FTSC mold are studied by means of numerical simulations. In detail, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model together with an enthalpy-porosity approach was used. The numerical findings are compared with respective simulations using the traditional Ruler-EMBr. The results demonstrate that the application of the VC-EMBr contributes significantly to preventing relative slab defects. In contrast to the Ruler-EMBr, the additional vertical magnetic poles of the VC-EMBr preferentially suppress the direct impact of jet flow on the narrow face of FSTC mold and considerably diminish the level fluctuation near the meniscus region. For instance, by applying a magnetic flux density of 0.3 T, the maximum amplitude of meniscus deflection reduces by about 80%. Moreover, the braking effect of the VC-EMBr effectively improves the homogeneity of temperature distribution in the upper recirculation region and increases the solidified shell thickness along the casting direction. On this basis, the newly proposed VC-EMBr shows a beneficial effect in preventing relative slab defects for FTSC thin slab continuous casting.



https://doi.org/10.1007/s42243-023-01062-9
Kolesnikov, Yuri; Kalis, Harijs
Electrically driven plane free shear flow in a duct under an oblique transverse uniform magnetic field. - In: Magnetohydrodynamics, Bd. 59 (2023), 2, S. 119-134

A mathematical model of electrically driven laminar free shear flows in a straight duct under the action of an applied oblique transverse uniform magnetic field is considered. The mathematical approach is similar to that used in [1]. A system of stationary partial differential equations with two unknown functions of velocity and induced magnetic field is solved. Three different cases of electric current supply to the liquid are considered. An electric current is introduced into the liquid first by one pair of linear electrodes, and in two other cases by two pairs of electrodes located on the upper and lower walls of the duct. The cases are analyzed when the angle of inclination of the magnetic field vector to these walls is ϕ0 = π/4. Depending on the direction of the electric current supplied to the pairs of electrodes, two coinciding in direction or two opposite inclined flows are driven in the zone between these walls. Increasing the magnetic field only leads to an internal rearrangement of the flows. The Hartmann number Ha ranges from 1 to 10, at which MHD effects distinctly enough are already displayed.



https://doi.org/0.22364/mhd.59.2.1
Sharifi Ghazijahani, Mohammad; Heyder, Florian; Schumacher, Jörg; Cierpka, Christian
Spatial prediction of the turbulent unsteady von Kármán vortex street using echo state networks. - In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1089-7666, Bd. 35 (2023), 11, 115141, S. 115141-1-115141-15

The spatial prediction of the turbulent flow of the unsteady von Kármán vortex street behind a cylinder at Re = 1000 is studied. For this, an echo state network (ESN) with 6000 neurons was trained on the raw, low-spatial resolution data from particle image velocimetry. During prediction, the ESN is provided one half of the spatial domain of the fluid flow. The task is to infer the missing other half. Four different decompositions termed forward, backward, forward-backward, and vertical were examined to show whether there exists a favorable region of the flow for which the ESN performs best. Also, it was checked whether the flow direction has an influence on the network's performance. In order to measure the quality of the predictions, we choose the vertical velocity prediction of direction (VVPD). Furthermore, the ESN's two main hyperparameters, leaking rate (LR) and spectral radius (SR), were optimized according to the VVPD values of the corresponding network output. Moreover, each hyperparameter combination was run for 24 random reservoir realizations. Our results show that VVPD values are highest for LR ≈ 0.6, and quite independent of SR values for all four prediction approaches. Furthermore, maximum VVPD values of ≈ 0.83 were achieved for backward, forward-backward, and vertical predictions while for the forward case VVPDmax = 0.74 was achieved. We found that the predicted vertical velocity fields predominantly align with their respective ground truth. The best overall accordance was found for backward and forward-backward scenarios. In summary, we conclude that the stable quality of the reconstructed fields over a long period of time, along with the simplicity of the machine learning algorithm (ESN), which relied on coarse experimental data only, demonstrates the viability of spatial prediction as a suitable method for machine learning application in turbulence.



https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0172722
Teutsch, Philipp; Käufer, Theo; Mäder, Patrick; Cierpka, Christian
Data-driven estimation of scalar quantities from planar velocity measurements by deep learning applied to temperature in thermal convection. - In: Experiments in fluids, ISSN 1432-1114, Bd. 64 (2023), 12, 191, S. 1-18

The measurement of the transport of scalar quantities within flows is oftentimes laborious, difficult or even unfeasible. On the other hand, velocity measurement techniques are very advanced and give high-resolution, high-fidelity experimental data. Hence, we explore the capabilities of a deep learning model to predict the scalar quantity, in our case temperature, from measured velocity data. Our method is purely data-driven and based on the u-net architecture and, therefore, well-suited for planar experimental data. We demonstrate the applicability of the u-net on experimental temperature and velocity data, measured in large aspect ratio Rayleigh-Bénard convection at Pr = 7.1 and Ra = 2 x 10^5, 4 x 10^5, 7 x 10^5. We conduct a hyper-parameter optimization and ablation study to ensure appropriate training convergence and test different architectural variations for the u-net. We test two application scenarios that are of interest to experimentalists. One, in which the u-net is trained with data of the same experimental run and one in which the u-net is trained on data of different Ra. Our analysis shows that the u-net can predict temperature fields similar to the measurement data and preserves typical spatial structure sizes. Moreover, the analysis of the heat transfer associated with the temperature showed good agreement when the u-net is trained with data of the same experimental run. The relative difference between measured and reconstructed local heat transfer of the system characterized by the Nusselt number Nu is between 0.3 and 14.1% depending on Ra. We conclude that deep learning has the potential to supplement measurements and can partially alleviate the expense of additional measurement of the scalar quantity.



https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-023-03736-2
Herzberg, Martin; Otto, Henning; Resagk, Christian; Cierpka, Christian
Experimental investigation of indoor air ventilation in a small-scale aircraft cabin model. - In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Building Energy and Environment, (2023), S. 1935-1941

The velocity field of the large-scale circulations (LSC) in turbulent mixed convection is analysed by means of 2D2C particle image velocimetry (PIV). The experiments are carried out in a small-scale model room resampling a generic passenger cabin. To achieve wide ranges of dimensionless numbers, pressurized dry air is used in the SCALEX facility. Three different LSCs have been found, depending on the Archimedes number Ar.



https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-9822-5_203
Otto, Henning; Naumann, Clemens; Odenthal, Christian; Cierpka, Christian
Unsteady inherent convective mixing in thermal-energy-storage systems during standby periods. - In: PRX energy, Bd. 2 (2023), 4, 043001, S. 043001-1-043001-17

Recent studies on the flow phenomena in stratified thermal-energy-storage (TES) systems have shown that heat conduction from the hot upper fluid layer through the vertical tank sidewall into the lower cold fluid layer leads to counterdirected wall jets adjacent to the vertical sidewalls. It was shown that these phenomena destroyed half of the total exergy content in less than a tenth of the storage time constant of a 2-m3 stratified TES system. This paper investigates short-term fluctuations of the wall jets since these fluctuations can potentially mix the hot and cold zones of the thermal stratification that are separated by the thermocline region. Using particle-image velocimetry measurements in two regions of a TES model experiment (near-wall region and far-field region) and analyzing the frequency content of the velocity fields revealed characteristic oscillations for different regions. In the near-wall region, observed fluctuations agreed well with an adjusted boundary layer frequency from the literature, showing that the wall jet is transitioning from laminar to turbulent flow. In the far-field region, the oscillations are related to the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. It is shown that the fluctuations from the boundaries of the thermocline region are most dominant and propagate into deeper regions of the thermocline. A comparison to data from the large-scale test facility for thermal energy storage in molten salt at the German Aerospace Center in Cologne showed good agreement. The consensus between the two experiments proves firstly that a small-scale model experiment with water as a storage liquid can be used to analyze the physical phenomena of large-scale molten salt storage facilities and secondly that these fluctuations are relevant for exergy destruction in real-scale TES.



https://doi.org/10.1103/PRXEnergy.2.043001
Sachs, Sebastian; Schmidt, Hagen; Cierpka, Christian; König, Jörg
On the behavior of prolate spheroids in a standing surface acoustic wave field. - In: Microfluidics and nanofluidics, ISSN 1613-4990, Bd. 27 (2023), 12, 81, S. 1-19

The active manipulation of particle and cell trajectories in fluids by high-frequency standing surface acoustic waves (sSAW) allows to separate particles and cells systematically depending on their size and acoustic contrast. However, process technologies and biomedical applications usually operate with non-spherical particles, for which the prediction of acoustic forces is highly challenging and remains a subject of ongoing research. In this study, the dynamical behavior of prolate spheroids exposed to a three-dimensional acoustic field with multiple pressure nodes along the channel width is examined. Optical measurements reveal an alignment of the particles orthogonal to the pressure nodes of the sSAW, which has not been reported in literature so far. The dynamical behavior of the particles is analyzed under controlled initial conditions for various motion patterns by imposing a phase shift on the sSAW. To gain detailed understanding of the particle dynamics, a three-dimensional numerical model is developed to predict the acoustic force and torque acting on a prolate spheroid. Considering the acoustically induced streaming around the particle, the numerical results are in excellent agreement with experimental findings. Using the proposed numerical model, a dependence of the acoustic force on the particle shape is found in relation to the acoustic impedance of the channel ceiling. Hence, the numerical model presented herein promises high progress for the design of separation devices utilizing sSAW, exploiting an additional separation criterion based on the particle shape.



https://doi.org/10.1007/s10404-023-02690-z