ab 2020 in der Hochschulbibliografie erfasst:

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Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Chen, Li-Yu; Khan, Nida Zaman; Lindenbauer, Annerose; Bui, Van-Chien; Zipfel, Peter F.; Heinrich, Doris
The binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to platelet factor 4: a proposed mechanism for the generation of pathogenic antibodies. - In: Biomolecules, ISSN 2218-273X, Bd. 14 (2024), 3, 245, S. 1-14

Pathogenic platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies contributed to the abnormal coagulation profiles in COVID-19 and vaccinated patients. However, the mechanism of what triggers the body to produce these antibodies has not yet been clarified. Similar patterns and many comparable features between the COVID-19 virus and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) have been reported. Previously, we identified a new mechanism of autoimmunity in HIT in which PF4-antibodies self-clustered PF4 and exposed binding epitopes for other pathogenic PF4/eparin antibodies. Here, we first proved that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP) also binds to PF4. The binding was evidenced by the increase in mass and optical intensity as observed through quartz crystal microbalance and immunosorbent assay, while the switching of the surface zeta potential caused by protein interactions and binding affinity of PF4-SP were evaluated by dynamic light scattering and isothermal spectral shift analysis. Based on our results, we proposed a mechanism for the generation of PF4 antibodies in COVID-19 patients. We further validated the changes in zeta potential and interaction affinity between PF4 and SP and found that their binding mechanism differs from ACE2-SP binding. Importantly, the PF4/SP complexes facilitate the binding of anti-PF4/Heparin antibodies. Our findings offer a fresh perspective on PF4 engagement with the SARS-CoV-2 SP, illuminating the role of PF4/SP complexes in severe thrombotic events.

Bui, Van-Chien; Nguyen, Thi-Huong
Mechanics of leukemic T-cell. - In: Journal of molecular recognition, ISSN 1099-1352, Bd. 36 (2023), 7, e3019, S. 1-7

Cell mechanics is a factor that determines cell growth, migration, proliferation, or differentiation, as well as trafficking inside the cytoplasm and organization of organelles. Knowledge about cell mechanics is critical to gaining insight into these biological processes. Here, we used atomic force microscopy to examine the elasticity, an important parameter of cell mechanics, of non-adherent Jurkat leukemic T-cells in both interphase and mitotic phases. We found that the elasticity of an individual cell does not significantly change at interphase. When a cell starts to divide, its elasticity increases in the transition from metaphase to telophase during normal division while the cell is stiffened right after it enters mitosis during abnormal division. At the end of the division, the cell elasticity gradually returned to the value of the mother cell. These changes may originate from the changes in cell surface tension during modulating actomyosin at the cleavage furrow, redistributing cell organelles, and constricting the contractile ring to sever mother cell to form daughters. The difference in elasticity patterns suggests that there is a discrepancy in the redistribution of the cell organelles during normal and abnormal division.

Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Wang, Hanqing; Chen, Li-Yu; Echtermeyer, Danny; Pliquett, Uwe
Modulating SARS-CoV-2 spike protein reactivity through moderate electric fields: a pathway to innovative therapies. - In: ACS omega, ISSN 2470-1343, Bd. 8 (2023), 48, S. 45952-45960

In the quest for effective COVID-19 treatments and vaccines, traditional biochemical methods have been paramount, yet the challenge of accommodating diverse viral mutants persists. Recent simulations propose an innovative physical strategy involving an external electric field applied to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, demonstrating a reduced viral binding potential. However, limited empirical knowledge exists regarding the characteristics of the spike protein after E-field treatment. Our study addresses this gap by employing diverse analytical techniques to elucidate the impact of low/moderate E-field intensity on the binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to the ACE2 receptor. Through comprehensive analysis, we unveil a substantial reduction in the spike protein binding capacity validated via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quartz crystal microbalance experiments. Remarkably, the E-field exposure induces significant protein structure rearrangement, leading to an enhanced negative surface zeta potential confirmed by dynamic light scattering. Circular dichroism spectroscopy corroborates these structural changes, showing alterations in the secondary protein structures. This study provides insights into SARS-CoV-2 spike protein modification under an E-field pulse, potentially paving the way for nonbiochemical strategies to mitigate viral reactivity and opening avenues for innovative therapeutic and preventive approaches against COVID-19 and its evolving variants.

Soter, Marcus; Apte, Gurunath; Madkatte, Dikshita; Nguyen, Thi-Huong
Insights into the writing process of the mask-free nanoprinting fluid force microscopy technology. - In: Engineering for a changing world, (2023), 1.2.118, S. 1-13

Platelets are activated immediately when contacting with non-physiological surfaces. Minimization of surface-induced platelet activation is important not only for platelet storage but also for other blood-contacting devices and implants. Chemical surface modification tunes the response of cells to contacting surfaces, but it requires a long process involving many regulatory challenges to transfer into a marketable product. Biophysical modification overcomes these limitations by modifying only the surface topography of already approved materials. The available large and random structures on platelet storage bags do not cause a significant impact on platelets because of their smallest size (only 1-3 μm) compared to other cells. We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of the mask-free nanoprint fluid force microscope (FluidFM) technology for writing dot-grid and hexanol structures. Here, we demonstrated that the technique allows the fabrication of nanostructures of varying features. Characteristics of nanostructures including height, width, and cross-line were analyzed and compared using atomic force microscopy imaging. Based on the results, we identified several technical issues, such as the printing direction and shape of structures that directly altered nanofeatures during printing. We confirmed that FluidFM is a powerful technique to precisely fabricate a variety of desired nanostructures for the development of platelet/blood-contacting devices if technical issues during printing are well controlled.

Zeußel, Lisa; Schober, Andreas; Ullmann, Fabian; Krischok, Stefan; Heinrich, Doris; Singh, Sukhdeep
Visible-light-assisted donor-acceptor-Stenhouse-adduct-based reversible photoswitching on a laser-structurable OrmoComp substrate. - In: ACS applied polymer materials, ISSN 2637-6105, Bd. 5 (2023), 10, S. 8631-8640

Laser-assisted nanolithography of commercially available photoresists is offering a limitless designing opportunity in the micro- and nanostructuring of 3D organotypic cell culture scaffolds. Among them, chemically functionalized OrmoComp has shown promising improvement in cell adhesion that paves the way to assemble cellular entities on a desirable geometry. Establishing a photoswitchable chemistry on the OrmoComp surface may offer an additional degree of freedom to manipulate the surface chemistry locally and selectively. We have established the methods for functionalization of the photopolymerized OrmoComp surface with visible-light-switchable donor-acceptor Stenhouse adducts. Unlike other polymers, a photopolymerized OrmoComp surface appears to be optimal for reversible photothermal switching, offering the possibility to influence surface properties like absorption and hydrophilicity tremendously. Light-assisted chemical modulation between colored triene-2-ol and colorless cyclopentenone can be achieved to a size region as narrow as 20 μm. Thermal reversion to the original triene-2-ol state can be analyzed spectroscopically and observed with the naked eye.

van Steijn, Leonie; Wondergem, Joeri A. J.; Schakenraad, Koen; Heinrich, Doris; Merks, Roeland M. H.
Deformability and collision-induced reorientation enhance cell topotaxis in dense microenvironments. - In: Biophysical journal, ISSN 1542-0086, Bd. 122 (2023), 13, S. 2791-2807

In vivo, cells navigate through complex environments filled with obstacles such as other cells and the extracellular matrix. Recently, the term “topotaxis” has been introduced for navigation along topographic cues such as obstacle density gradients. Experimental and mathematical efforts have analyzed topotaxis of single cells in pillared grids with pillar density gradients. A previous model based on active Brownian particles (ABPs) has shown that ABPs perform topotaxis, i.e., drift toward lower pillar densities, due to decreased effective persistence lengths at high pillar densities. The ABP model predicted topotactic drifts of up to 1% of the instantaneous speed, whereas drifts of up to 5% have been observed experimentally. We hypothesized that the discrepancy between the ABP and the experimental observations could be in 1) cell deformability and 2) more complex cell-pillar interactions. Here, we introduce a more detailed model of topotaxis based on the cellular Potts model (CPM). To model persistent cells we use the Act model, which mimics actin-polymerization-driven motility, and a hybrid CPM-ABP model. Model parameters were fitted to simulate the experimentally found motion of Dictyostelium discoideum on a flat surface. For starved D. discoideum, the topotactic drifts predicted by both CPM variants are closer to the experimental results than the previous ABP model due to a larger decrease in persistence length. Furthermore, the Act model outperformed the hybrid model in terms of topotactic efficiency, as it shows a larger reduction in effective persistence time in dense pillar grids. Also pillar adhesion can slow down cells and decrease topotaxis. For slow and less-persistent vegetative D. discoideum cells, both CPMs predicted a similar small topotactic drift. We conclude that deformable cell volume results in higher topotactic drift compared with ABPs, and that feedback of cell-pillar collisions on cell persistence increases drift only in highly persistent cells.

Apte, Gurunath; Hirtz, Michael Manfred; Nguyen, Thi-Huong
FluidFM-based fabrication of nanopatterns: promising surfaces for platelet storage application. - In: ACS applied materials & interfaces, ISSN 1944-8252, Bd. 14 (2022), 21, S. 24133-24143

Platelets are cell fragments from megakaryocytes devoid of the cell nucleus. They are highly sensitive and easily activated by nonphysiological surfaces. Activated platelets have an intrinsic mechanism to release various proteins that participate in multiple pathways, initiating the platelet activation cascade. Surface-induced platelet activation is a challenge encountered during platelet storage, which eventually leads to aggregation of platelets and can thereby result in the degradation of the platelet concentrates. We have previously reported that surface-induced platelet activation can be minimized by either modifying their contact surfaces with polymers or introducing nanogroove patterns underneath the platelets. Here, we investigated the response of platelets to various nanotopographical surfaces printed using fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM). We found that the hemispherical array (grid) and hexagonal tile (hive) structures caused a reduction of surface stiffness, which leads to an inhibition of platelet adhesion. Our results reveal that nanopatterns enable the inhibition of platelet activation on surfaces, thus implying that development in nanotexturing of storage bags can extend the lifetime of platelet concentrates.

Chen, Li-Yu; Khan, Nida; Lindenbauer, Annerose; Nguyen, Thi-Huong
When will Fondaparinux induce thrombocytopenia?. - In: Bioconjugate chemistry, ISSN 1520-4812, Bd. 33 (2022), 8, S. 1574-1583

The pentasaccharide Fondaparinux, a synthetic selective factor Xa inhibitor, is one of the safest anticoagulants in the heparin family that is recommended as an alternative drug for patients with hypersensitivity to other drugs such as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). However, some observations of Fondaparinux-induced thrombocytopenia (FIT) have been reported while others claimed that FIT does not occur in patients with fondaparinux therapy, indicating that the mechanism of FIT remains controversial. Here, we utilized different methodologies including dynamic light scattering, immunosorbent and platelet aggregation assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and flow cytometry to gain insights into FIT. We found that at a certain concentration, Fondaparinux formed sufficient large and stable complexes with PF4 that facilitated binding of the HIT-like monoclonal KKO antibody and enhanced platelet aggregation and activation. We proposed a model to describe the role of Fondaparinux concentration in the formation of complexes with platelet factor 4 and how it promotes the binding of KKO. Our results clarify controversial observations of FIT in patients as each contains a dissimilar PF4:Fondaparinux concentration ratio.

Chen, Li-Yu; Schirmer, Uwe; Widder, Miriam; Gruel, Yves; Rollin, Jérôme; Zipfel, Peter F.; Nguyen, Thi-Huong
Breast cancer cell-based ELISA: a potential material for better detection of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibodies. - In: Journal of materials chemistry, ISSN 2050-7518, Bd. 10 (2022), 38, S. 7708-7716

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is caused by newly formed platelet-activating antibodies against complexes formed between platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin (H). HIT can result in life-threatening complications; thus, early detection of HIT antibodies is crucial for the treatment of the disease. The enzyme-linked immune absorbance assay (ELISA) for the identification of HIT antibodies is widely used in many laboratories, but in general, this test provides only ∼50% accuracy while other methods show multiple limitations. Here, we developed a new cell-based ELISA to improve the detection of HIT antibodies. Instead of immobilizing PF4 or PF4/H complexes directly onto a plate as in the standard ELISA, we added the complexes on breast cancer cells, i.e., cell line MDA-MB-231, and applied the same protocol for antibody detection. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry for the characterization of bound complexes, we identified two types of HIT-mimicked antibodies (KKO and 1E12), which were able to differentiate from the non-HIT antibody (RTO). PF4-treated MDA-MB-231 cells allowed binding of HIT-mimicked antibodies better than PF4/H complexes. With human sera, the cell-based ELISA allowed better differentiation of clinically relevant from non-clinically relevant HIT antibodies as compared with the standard ELISA. Our findings provide a potential approach that contributes to the development of better assays for the detection of HIT antibodies.

Schemberg, Jörg; El Abbassi, Abdelouahad; Lindenbauer, Annerose; Chen, Li-Yu; Grodrian, Andreas; Nakos, Xenia; Apte, Gurunath; Khan, Nida; Kraupner, Alexander; Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Gastrock, Gunter
Synthesis of biocompatible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) under different microfluidic regimes. - In: ACS applied materials & interfaces, ISSN 1944-8252, Bd. 14 (2022), 42, S. 48011-48028

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) have a great potential in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications as they provide contrast in magnetic resonance imaging techniques and allow magnetic hyperthermia and drug delivery. Though various types of SPION are commercially available, efforts to improve the quality of SPION are highly in demand. Here, we describe a strategy for optimization of SPION synthesis under microfluidics using the coprecipitation approach. Synthesis parameters such as temperature, pH, iron salt concentration, and coating materials were investigated in continuous and segmented flows. Continuous flow allowed synthesizing particles of a smaller size and higher stability than segmented flow, while both conditions improved the quality of particles compared to batch synthesis. The most stable particles were obtained at a synthesis condition of 6.5 M NH4OH base, iron salt (Fe2+/Fe3+) concentration ratio of 4.3/8.6, carboxymethyl dextran coating of 20 mg/mL, and temperature of 70 ˚C. The synthesized SPION exhibited a good efficiency in labeling of human platelets and did not impair cells. Our study under flow conditions provides an optimal protocol for the synthesis of better and biocompatible SPION that contributes to the development of nanoparticles for medical applications.


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