Publikationen von Prof. Dr. Stefan Krischok

   
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Link, Steffen; Dimitrova, Anna; Krischok, Stefan; Ivanov, Svetlozar
Electrochemical deposition of silicon in organic electrolytes. - In: Reference module in chemistry, molecular sciences and chemical engineering, (2023)

Electrodeposition is a versatile instrumental technique, already applied in many industrial fields. However, the deposition of silicon and other reactive elements is still challenging and requires further research and improvement. Accomplishing an efficient electrodeposition of silicon at room temperature is very attractive due to the high number of manufacturing technologies that would benefit from this approach. This work provides an overview of the electrochemical approaches for silicon deposition performed in organic electrolytes. The main factors that impact this process are individually discussed and exemplified with appropriately updated literature sources. Furthermore, the previously available research on characterization of electrodeposited silicon containing layers is provided. These studies are presented in the context of better understanding the structure, composition, and functional properties of the deposited silicon material, which may attract the attention of young academic scientists and process engineers.



https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-85669-0.00005-2
Lauer, Kevin; Peh, Katharina; Schulze, Dirk; Ortlepp, Thomas; Runge, Erich; Krischok, Stefan
The ASi-Sii defect model of light-induced degradation (LID) in silicon: a discussion and review. - In: Physica status solidi, ISSN 1521-396X, Bd. 219 (2022), 19, 2200099, S. 1-10

The ASi-Sii defect model as one possible explanation for light-induced degradation (LID) in typically boron-doped silicon solar cells, detectors, and related systems is discussed and reviewed. Starting from the basic experiments which led to the ASi-Sii defect model, the ASi-Sii defect model (A: boron, or indium) is explained and contrasted to the assumption of a fast-diffusing so-called “boron interstitial.” An LID cycle of illumination and annealing is discussed within the conceptual frame of the ASi-Sii defect model. The dependence of the LID defect density on the interstitial oxygen concentration is explained within the ASi-Sii defect picture. By comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance data and minority carrier lifetime data related to the assumed fast diffusion of the “boron interstitial” and the annihilation of the fast LID component, respectively, the characteristic EPR signal Si-G28 in boron-doped silicon is related to a specific ASi-Sii defect state. Several other LID-related experiments are found to be consistent with an interpretation by an ASi-Sii defect.



https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.202200099
Hähnlein, Bernd; Kellner, Maria; Krey, Maximilian; Nikpourian, Alireza; Pezoldt, Jörg; Michael, Steffen; Töpfer, Hannes; Krischok, Stefan; Tonisch, Katja
The angle dependent ΔE effect in TiN/AlN/Ni micro cantilevers. - In: Sensors and actuators, ISSN 1873-3069, Bd. 345 (2022), 113784

In this work, magnetoelectric MEMS sensors based on a TiN/AlN/Ni laminate are investigated for the first time in regards of the anisotropic elastic properties when using hard magnetic Nickel as magnetostrictive layer. The implications of crystalline, uniaxial and shape anisotropy are analysed arising from the anisotropic ΔE effect in differently oriented cantilevers with 25 µm length and 15˚ spacing. The ΔE effect is derived analytically to consider the angular dependency of the different anisotropies within the sensors. In the measured frequency spectra complex profiles are observable consisting of contributions from neighbouring structures which are connected by a common electrode. The crosstalk effect is strongly depending on the cantilever orientation and reflects the anisotropic mechanical properties of the material stack. The intensity of the crosstalk effect is increasing for shortened cantilevers and narrowing distance between structures. The ΔE effect is investigated based on cantilevers of different angular spacing and of a single cantilever that is rotated in the magnetic field. The derived peak sensitivities are reaching values of 1.15 and 1.31T-1. The angular dependency of the sensitivity is found to be approximately constant for differently oriented cantilevers. In contrast, for a singly rotated cantilever an angular dependency of the 4th order is observed.



https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2022.113784
Lauer, Kevin; Peh, Katharina; Krischok, Stefan; Reiß, Stephanie; Hiller, Erik; Ortlepp, Thomas
Development of low-gain avalanche detectors in the frame of the acceptor removal phenomenon. - In: Physica status solidi, ISSN 1521-396X, Bd. 219 (2022), 17, 2200177, S. 1-7

Low-gain avalanche detectors (LGAD) suffer from an acceptor removal phenomenon due to irradiation. This acceptor removal phenomenon is investigated in boron, gallium, and indium implanted samples by 4-point-probe (4pp) measurements, low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy (LTPL), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) before and after irradiation with electrons and protons. Different co-implantation species are evaluated with respect to their ability to reduce the acceptor removal phenomenon. In case of boron, the beneficial effect is found to be most pronounced for the low-dose fluorine and high-dose nitrogen co-implantation. In case of gallium, the low-dose implantations of carbon and oxygen are found to be beneficial. For indium, the different co-implantation species have no beneficial effect. SIMS boron concentration depth profiles measured before and after irradiation show no indication of a fast movement of boron at room temperature. Hence, the discussed BSi-Sii-defect explanation approach of the acceptor removal phenomenon seems to be more likely than the other discussed Bi-Oi-defect explanation approach.



https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.202200177
Peh, Katharina; Lauer, Kevin; Flötotto, Aaron; Schulze, Dirk; Krischok, Stefan
Low-temperature photoluminescence investigation of light-induced degradation in boron-doped CZ silicon. - In: Physica status solidi, ISSN 1521-396X, Bd. 219 (2022), 17, 2200180, S. 1-9

Light-induced degradation (LID) in boron-doped Czochralski grown (CZ) silicon is a severe problem for silicon devices such as solar cells or radiation detectors. Herein, boron-doped CZ silicon is investigated by low-temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) spectroscopy. An LID-related photoluminescence peak is already found while analyzing indium-doped p-type silicon samples and is associated with the ASi-Sii defect model. Herein, it is investigated whether a similar peak is present in the spectra of boron-doped p-type CZ silicon samples. The presence of change in the photoluminescence signal intensity due to activation of the boron defect is investigated as well. Numerous measurements on boron-doped samples are made. For this purpose, samples with four different boron doping concentrations are analyzed. The treatments for activation of the boron defect are based on the LID cycle. During an LID cycle, an additional peak or shoulder neither in the areas of the boron-bound exciton transverse acoustic and nonphonon-assisted peaks (BTA, BNP) nor in the area of the boron-bound exciton transverse optical phonon-assisted peak (BTO) is found. The defect formation also does not lead to a lower photoluminescence (PL) intensity ratio BTO(BE)/ITO(FE).



https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.202200180
Hähnlein, Bernd; Sagar, Neha; Honig, Hauke; Krischok, Stefan; Tonisch, Katja
Anisotropy of the ΔE effect in Ni-based magnetoelectric cantilevers: a finite element method analysis. - In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, Bd. 22 (2022), 13, 4958, S. 1-16

In recent investigations of magnetoelectric sensors based on microelectromechanical cantilevers made of TiN/AlN/Ni, a complex eigenfrequency behavior arising from the anisotropic ΔE effect was demonstrated. Within this work, a FEM simulation model based on this material system is presented to allow an investigation of the vibrational properties of cantilever-based sensors derived from magnetocrystalline anisotropy while avoiding other anisotropic contributions. Using the magnetocrystalline ΔE effect, a magnetic hardening of Nickel is demonstrated for the (110) as well as the (111) orientation. The sensitivity is extracted from the field-dependent eigenfrequency curves. It is found, that the transitions of the individual magnetic domain states in the magnetization process are the dominant influencing factor on the sensitivity for all crystal orientations. It is shown, that Nickel layers in the sensor aligned along the medium or hard axis yield a higher sensitivity than layers along the easy axis. The peak sensitivity was determined to 41.3 T−1 for (110) in-plane-oriented Nickel at a magnetic bias flux of 1.78 mT. The results achieved by FEM simulations are compared to the results calculated by the Euler-Bernoulli theory.



https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134958
Link, Steffen; Dimitrova, Anna; Krischok, Stefan; Ivanov, Svetlozar
Reversible sodiation of electrochemically deposited binder- and conducting additive-free Si-O-C composite layers. - In: Energy technology, ISSN 2194-4296, Bd. 10 (2022), 5, 2101164, S. 1-9

Binder- and conducting additive-free Si-O-C composite layers are deposited electrochemically under potentiostatic conditions from sulfolane-based organic electrolyte. Quartz crystal microbalance with damping monitoring is used for evaluation of the layer growth and its physical properties. The sodiation-desodiation performance of the material is afterward explored in Na-ion electrolyte. In terms of specific capacity, rate capability, and long-term electrochemical stability, the experiments confirm the advantages of applying the electrochemically formed Si-O-C structure as anode for Na-ion batteries. The material displays high (722 mAh g^-1) initial reversible capacity at j = 70 mA g^-1 and preserves stable long-term capacity of 540 mAh g^-1 for at least 400 galvanostatic cycles, measured at j = 150 mA g^-1. The observed high performance can be attributed to its improved mechanical stability and accelerated Na-ion transport in the porous anode structure. The origin of the material electroactivity is revealed based on X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of pristine (as deposited), sodiated, and desodiated Si-O-C layers. The evaluation of the spectroscopic data indicates reversible activity of the material due to the complex contribution of carbon and silicon redox centers.



https://doi.org/10.1002/ente.202101164
Reiß, Stephanie; Hopfeld, Marcus; Romanus, Henry; Pfeifer, Kerstin; Krischok, Stefan; Rädlein, Edda
Chemical changes of float glass surfaces induced by different sand particles and mineralogical phases. - In: Journal of non-crystalline solids, ISSN 0022-3093, Bd. 566 (2021), 120868

Particles play an important role in the storage, transportation and natural weathering of glasses, but their influence on glass degradation is little studied. In this work, the influence of main sand components is investigated. Feldspar exhibits the strongest leaching rate for the network former Na, while quartz has the lowest. The leaching rate of natural sands is in between. Based on these findings, a model describing the leaching mechanism was developed: Hereby, hydroxyl groups adhering on sand grains adsorb network modifiers by substituting their hydrogen by network formers from the glass surface. The amount of available hydroxyl groups determines the leaching rate. This model is supported by loss on ignition performed for the sands, which might be a suitable method to roughly estimate their leaching rates. The adsorption of network modifiers suppresses carbonate formation, dendritic growth and Mg diffusion in the glass surface region. Pimple-like crystal growth is observed.



https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2021.120868
Link, Steffen; Kurniawan, Mario; Dimitrova, Anna; Krischok, Stefan; Bund, Andreas; Ivanov, Svetlozar
Enhanced cycling performance of binder free silicon-based anode by application of electrochemically formed microporous substrate. - In: Electrochimica acta, Bd. 380 (2021), 138216, S. 1-9

In this work, an electrochemically formed porous Cu current collector (p-Cu) is utilized for the development of a high-performance binder-free silicon anode. Two electrolyte compositions based on sulfolane (SL) and [BMP][TFSI] ionic liquid (IL) are implemented for silicon deposition. The electrochemical experiments confirm the advantages of applying the p-Cu structure in terms of specific capacity, rate capability, and long-term cycling, where the best electrochemical properties have been observed for the Si deposited from SL electrolyte. The Si-based p-Cu anodes formed in SL display stable 2500 mAh g^-1 reversible capacity during the first 250 cycles and promising capacity retention. Compared to this result, the cycling performance of the same type of material deposited on flat Cu foil (f-Cu) showed significantly reduced capacity (1400 mAh g^-1) and inferior cycling performance. The positive effect can be attributed to the improved mechanical stability of the active material and accelerated ionic transport in the porous structure of the anode. The improved functional properties of the electrochemically deposited Si from SL electrolyte in p-Cu samples compared to those obtained in IL can be ascribed to differences in the chemical composition. While the layers deposited in SL electrolyte involve Si domains incorporated in a matrix containing C and O that offer high mechanical stability, the Si material obtained in IL is additionally influenced by N and F chemical species, resulting from active IL decomposition. These differences in the chemical surrounding of the Si domains are the primary reason for the inferior electrochemical performance of the material deposited from [BMP][TFSI] electrolyte. XPS analysis shows that the initial composition of the as deposited layers, containing a considerable amount of elemental Si, is changed after lithiation and that the electrochemical activity of the anode is governed by switching between the intermediate redox states of Si, where the carbon-oxygen matrix is also involved.



https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2021.138216
Ivanov, Svetlozar; Link, Steffen; Dimitrova, Anna; Krischok, Stefan; Bund, Andreas
Electrochemical nucleation of silicon in ionic liquid-based electrolytes. - In: Meeting abstracts, ISSN 2151-2043, Bd. MA2020-01 (2020), 19, 1181

https://doi.org/10.1149/MA2020-01191181mtgabs