Publikationen von Prof. Dr. Stefan Krischok

   
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Witt, Michael; Papmahl, Eric; Genov, Ivan; Dimitrova, Anna; Gabryelczyk, Agnieszka; Krischok, Stefan; Lota, Grzegorz; Ivanov, Svetlozar
In-situ electrogravimetric detection of the cathodic process during the galvanic coupling between lithium and copper. - In: Electrochimica acta, ISSN 1873-3859, Bd. 463 (2023), 142853

With the development of the energy system transformation the quality and efficiency of the rechargeable batteries, particularly the Li ion technology, gain major importance. In spite of the enormous advances, along with many other technological challenges corrosion of the metallic battery parts is often a difficult obstacle for producers and researchers. Li-metal batteries and especially the “anode-free” battery concept could significantly increase the energy density. However, contact corrosion of the Li anode, can occur in this cell configuration since there is a high probability of a three-phase contact between Li-metal, current collector and electrolyte, a condition triggering an intensive Li corrosion. In this work, a new in-situ analytical methodology based on combining electrochemical (ZRA) and microgravimetric (QCM) techniques is proposed for studying the galvanic corrosion. The applicability of this approach is explored in three different electrolyte compositions. Beside the analysis of the conventional electrochemical parameters an in-situ gravimetric detection of the deposited electrolyte decomposition products on the cathode surface is demonstrated. Adsorbed polymer layer on the Cu surface is applied for cathodic inhibition of the galvanic corrosion process, which is studied by means of the novel ZRA-QCM approach.



https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2023.142853
Zeußel, Lisa; Schober, Andreas; Ullmann, Fabian; Krischok, Stefan; Heinrich, Doris; Singh, Sukhdeep
Visible-light-assisted donor-acceptor-Stenhouse-adduct-based reversible photoswitching on a laser-structurable OrmoComp substrate. - In: ACS applied polymer materials, ISSN 2637-6105, Bd. 5 (2023), 10, S. 8631-8640

Laser-assisted nanolithography of commercially available photoresists is offering a limitless designing opportunity in the micro- and nanostructuring of 3D organotypic cell culture scaffolds. Among them, chemically functionalized OrmoComp has shown promising improvement in cell adhesion that paves the way to assemble cellular entities on a desirable geometry. Establishing a photoswitchable chemistry on the OrmoComp surface may offer an additional degree of freedom to manipulate the surface chemistry locally and selectively. We have established the methods for functionalization of the photopolymerized OrmoComp surface with visible-light-switchable donor-acceptor Stenhouse adducts. Unlike other polymers, a photopolymerized OrmoComp surface appears to be optimal for reversible photothermal switching, offering the possibility to influence surface properties like absorption and hydrophilicity tremendously. Light-assisted chemical modulation between colored triene-2-ol and colorless cyclopentenone can be achieved to a size region as narrow as 20 μm. Thermal reversion to the original triene-2-ol state can be analyzed spectroscopically and observed with the naked eye.



https://doi.org/10.1021/acsapm.3c01766
Tsierkezos, Nikos; Freiberger, Emma; Ritter, Uwe; Krischok, Stefan; Ullmann, Fabian; Köhler, Michael
Application of nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with gold nanoparticles in biosensing. - In: Journal of solid state electrochemistry, ISSN 1433-0768, Bd. 27 (2023), 10, S. 2645-2658

Novel films consisting of nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (N-MWCNTs) were fabricated by means of chemical vapor deposition technique and decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possessing diameter of 14.0 nm. Electron optical microscopy analysis reveals that decoration of N-MWCNTs with AuNPs does not have any influence on their bamboo-shaped configuration. The electrochemical response of fabricated composite films, further denoted as N-MWCNTs/AuNPs, towards oxidation of dopamine (DA) to dopamine-o-quinone (DAQ) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) was probed in real pig serum by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The findings demonstrate that N-MWCNTs/AuNPs exhibit slightly greater electrochemical response and sensitivity towards DA/DAQ compared to unmodified N-MWCNTs. It is, consequently, obvious that AuNPs improve significantly the electrochemical response and detection ability of N-MWCNTs. The electrochemical response of N-MWCNTs/AuNPs towards DA/DAQ seems to be significantly greater compared to that of conventional electrodes, such as platinum and glassy carbon. The findings reveal that N-MWCNTs/AuNPs could serve as powerful analytical sensor enabling analysis of DA in real serum samples.



https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-023-05562-2
Peh, Katharina; Flötotto, Aaron; Lauer, Kevin; Schulze, Dirk; Bratek, Dominik; Krischok, Stefan
Calibration of low-temperature photoluminescence of boron-doped silicon with increased temperature precision. - In: Physica status solidi, ISSN 1521-3951, Bd. 260 (2023), 10, 2300300, S. 1-5

https://doi.org/10.1002/pssb.202300300
Hähnlein, Bernd; Honig, Hauke; Schaaf, Peter; Krischok, Stefan; Tonisch, Katja
Effect of poly-crystallinity on the magnetoelectric behavior of TiN/AlN/Ni MEMS cantilevers investigated by finite element methods. - In: Physica status solidi, ISSN 1862-6319, Bd. 220 (2023), 16, 2200839, S. 1-6

Herein, magnetoelectric microelectromechanical system (MEMS) cantilevers are investigated on basis of a TiN/AlN/Ni laminate derived from experimental sensors using finite-element simulations. With the anisotropic ΔE effect as an implication of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the lateral sensitivity of the sensor is studied for different nickel layer thicknesses and boundary conditions. It is found that above 60% of the cantilever length, the nickel is effectively not contributing to the sensor sensitivity anymore which is supported by the investigation of sensors with partial nickel coverage. The boundary condition of the magnetostrictive layer is found to affect the sensitivity of thick layers while it is negligible for thinning layers. Further investigations on basis of polycrystalline untextured nickel with slightly preferred orientations reveal a stronger effect on thin layers than on thicker ones. It is found to arise from relatively large crystals in the high-sensitivity region near the clamping of the sensor. For thicker polycrystalline layers, the ΔE effect reproduces a characteristic based mainly on the (110) and (111) orientations while the (100) orientation appears to be underrepresented.



https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.202200839
Link, Steffen; Dimitrova, Anna; Krischok, Stefan; Ivanov, Svetlozar
Electrochemical deposition of silicon in organic electrolytes. - In: Reference module in chemistry, molecular sciences and chemical engineering, (2023)

Electrodeposition is a versatile instrumental technique, already applied in many industrial fields. However, the deposition of silicon and other reactive elements is still challenging and requires further research and improvement. Accomplishing an efficient electrodeposition of silicon at room temperature is very attractive due to the high number of manufacturing technologies that would benefit from this approach. This work provides an overview of the electrochemical approaches for silicon deposition performed in organic electrolytes. The main factors that impact this process are individually discussed and exemplified with appropriately updated literature sources. Furthermore, the previously available research on characterization of electrodeposited silicon containing layers is provided. These studies are presented in the context of better understanding the structure, composition, and functional properties of the deposited silicon material, which may attract the attention of young academic scientists and process engineers.



https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-85669-0.00005-2
Lauer, Kevin; Peh, Katharina; Schulze, Dirk; Ortlepp, Thomas; Runge, Erich; Krischok, Stefan
The ASi-Sii defect model of light-induced degradation (LID) in silicon: a discussion and review. - In: Physica status solidi, ISSN 1862-6319, Bd. 219 (2022), 19, 2200099, S. 1-10

The ASi-Sii defect model as one possible explanation for light-induced degradation (LID) in typically boron-doped silicon solar cells, detectors, and related systems is discussed and reviewed. Starting from the basic experiments which led to the ASi-Sii defect model, the ASi-Sii defect model (A: boron, or indium) is explained and contrasted to the assumption of a fast-diffusing so-called “boron interstitial.” An LID cycle of illumination and annealing is discussed within the conceptual frame of the ASi-Sii defect model. The dependence of the LID defect density on the interstitial oxygen concentration is explained within the ASi-Sii defect picture. By comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance data and minority carrier lifetime data related to the assumed fast diffusion of the “boron interstitial” and the annihilation of the fast LID component, respectively, the characteristic EPR signal Si-G28 in boron-doped silicon is related to a specific ASi-Sii defect state. Several other LID-related experiments are found to be consistent with an interpretation by an ASi-Sii defect.



https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.202200099
Hähnlein, Bernd; Kellner, Maria; Krey, Maximilian; Nikpourian, Alireza; Pezoldt, Jörg; Michael, Steffen; Töpfer, Hannes; Krischok, Stefan; Tonisch, Katja
The angle dependent ΔE effect in TiN/AlN/Ni micro cantilevers. - In: Sensors and actuators, ISSN 1873-3069, Bd. 345 (2022), 113784

In this work, magnetoelectric MEMS sensors based on a TiN/AlN/Ni laminate are investigated for the first time in regards of the anisotropic elastic properties when using hard magnetic Nickel as magnetostrictive layer. The implications of crystalline, uniaxial and shape anisotropy are analysed arising from the anisotropic ΔE effect in differently oriented cantilevers with 25 µm length and 15˚ spacing. The ΔE effect is derived analytically to consider the angular dependency of the different anisotropies within the sensors. In the measured frequency spectra complex profiles are observable consisting of contributions from neighbouring structures which are connected by a common electrode. The crosstalk effect is strongly depending on the cantilever orientation and reflects the anisotropic mechanical properties of the material stack. The intensity of the crosstalk effect is increasing for shortened cantilevers and narrowing distance between structures. The ΔE effect is investigated based on cantilevers of different angular spacing and of a single cantilever that is rotated in the magnetic field. The derived peak sensitivities are reaching values of 1.15 and 1.31T-1. The angular dependency of the sensitivity is found to be approximately constant for differently oriented cantilevers. In contrast, for a singly rotated cantilever an angular dependency of the 4th order is observed.



https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2022.113784
Lauer, Kevin; Peh, Katharina; Krischok, Stefan; Reiß, Stephanie; Hiller, Erik; Ortlepp, Thomas
Development of low-gain avalanche detectors in the frame of the acceptor removal phenomenon. - In: Physica status solidi, ISSN 1862-6319, Bd. 219 (2022), 17, 2200177, S. 1-7

Low-gain avalanche detectors (LGAD) suffer from an acceptor removal phenomenon due to irradiation. This acceptor removal phenomenon is investigated in boron, gallium, and indium implanted samples by 4-point-probe (4pp) measurements, low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy (LTPL), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) before and after irradiation with electrons and protons. Different co-implantation species are evaluated with respect to their ability to reduce the acceptor removal phenomenon. In case of boron, the beneficial effect is found to be most pronounced for the low-dose fluorine and high-dose nitrogen co-implantation. In case of gallium, the low-dose implantations of carbon and oxygen are found to be beneficial. For indium, the different co-implantation species have no beneficial effect. SIMS boron concentration depth profiles measured before and after irradiation show no indication of a fast movement of boron at room temperature. Hence, the discussed BSi-Sii-defect explanation approach of the acceptor removal phenomenon seems to be more likely than the other discussed Bi-Oi-defect explanation approach.



https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.202200177
Peh, Katharina; Lauer, Kevin; Flötotto, Aaron; Schulze, Dirk; Krischok, Stefan
Low-temperature photoluminescence investigation of light-induced degradation in boron-doped CZ silicon. - In: Physica status solidi, ISSN 1862-6319, Bd. 219 (2022), 17, 2200180, S. 1-9

Light-induced degradation (LID) in boron-doped Czochralski grown (CZ) silicon is a severe problem for silicon devices such as solar cells or radiation detectors. Herein, boron-doped CZ silicon is investigated by low-temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) spectroscopy. An LID-related photoluminescence peak is already found while analyzing indium-doped p-type silicon samples and is associated with the ASi-Sii defect model. Herein, it is investigated whether a similar peak is present in the spectra of boron-doped p-type CZ silicon samples. The presence of change in the photoluminescence signal intensity due to activation of the boron defect is investigated as well. Numerous measurements on boron-doped samples are made. For this purpose, samples with four different boron doping concentrations are analyzed. The treatments for activation of the boron defect are based on the LID cycle. During an LID cycle, an additional peak or shoulder neither in the areas of the boron-bound exciton transverse acoustic and nonphonon-assisted peaks (BTA, BNP) nor in the area of the boron-bound exciton transverse optical phonon-assisted peak (BTO) is found. The defect formation also does not lead to a lower photoluminescence (PL) intensity ratio BTO(BE)/ITO(FE).



https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.202200180