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Gerhardt, Christoph; Broll, Wolfgang;
Neural network-based traffic sign recognition in 360˚ images for semi-automatic road maintenance inventory. - In: 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC). - [Piscataway, NJ] : IEEE, (2020), insges. 7 S.
Elbehery, Mostafa; Weidner, Florian; Broll, Wolfgang;
Haptic space: the effect of a rigid hand representation on presence when interacting with passive haptics controls in VR. - In: 19th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia : proceedings : Nov 22 - Nov 25, 2020, Essen, Germany.. - New York, New York : The Association for Computing Machinery, (2020), S. 245-253

Many virtual reality (VR) applications rely on passive haptics where virtual objects have a real counterpart that provides tactile feedback. In addition to that, many VR applications do not provide accurate hand representations, especially when there is a high chance of occlusion as this makes vision-based tracking problematic. Hence, we investigated how a simple hand representation affects user experience and presence when interacting with passive haptic controls in a virtual environment. We report on a between-subject user study where N = 45 participants experienced one of three conditions (no hands at all, hands represented as a rigid 3D model, and hands represented as a rigid 3D model with a snapping mechanism). Our results indicate that a simple hand representation using a 3D model of hands paired with a snapping mechanism significantly increases presence and user experience. That indicates that this simple and low-cost technique is effective to improve the VE as a whole. This, in return, provides a chance for improvement for many VR applications with passive haptics.
Mori, Shohei; Erat, Okan; Broll, Wolfgang; Saito, Hideo; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Kalkofen, Denis;
InpaintFusion: incremental RGB-D inpainting for 3D scenes. - In: IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics : TVCG.. - New York, NY : IEEE, ISSN 1941-0506, Bd. 26 (2020), 10, S. 2994-3007

State-of-the-art methods for diminished reality propagate pixel information from a keyframe to subsequent frames for real-time inpainting. However, these approaches produce artifacts, if the scene geometry is not sufficiently planar. In this article, we present InpaintFusion, a new real-time method that extends inpainting to non-planar scenes by considering both color and depth information in the inpainting process. We use an RGB-D sensor for simultaneous localization and mapping, in order to both track the camera and obtain a surfel map in addition to RGB images. We use the RGB-D information in a cost function for both the color and the geometric appearance to derive a global optimization for simultaneous inpainting of color and depth. The inpainted depth is merged in a global map by depth fusion. For the final rendering, we project the map model into image space, where we can use it for effects such as relighting and stereo rendering of otherwise hidden structures. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method by comparing it to inpainting results with methods using planar geometric proxies.
Weidner, Florian; Broll, Wolfgang;
Stereoscopic 3D dashboards : an investigation of performance, workload, and gaze behavior during take-overs in semi-autonomous driving. - In: Personal and ubiquitous computing : PUC.. - London : Springer, ISSN 1617-4917, (2020), insges. 23 S.
- Published: 25 August 2020

When operating a conditionally automated vehicle, humans occasionally have to take over control. If the driver is out of the loop, a certain amount of time is necessary to gain situation awareness. This work evaluates the potential of stereoscopic 3D (S3D) dashboards for presenting smart S3D take-over-requests (TORs) to support situation assessment. In a driving simulator study with a 4 × 2 between-within design, we presented 3 smart TORs showing the current traffic situation and a baseline TOR in 2D and S3D to 52 participants doing the n-back task. We further investigate if non-standard locations affect the results. Take-over performance indicates that participants looked at and processed the TORs' visual information and by that, could perform more safe take-overs. S3D warnings in general, as well as warnings appearing at the participants focus of attention and warnings at the instrument cluster, performed best. We conclude that visual warnings, presented on an S3D dashboard, can be a valid option to support take-over while not increasing workload. We further discuss participants gaze behavior in the context of visual warnings for automotive user interfaces.
Schwandt, Tobias; Kunert, Christian; Broll, Wolfgang;
Environment estimation for glossy reflections in mixed reality applications using a neural network. - In: Special Issue on Cyberworlds and Cybersecurity. - Berlin : Springer, (2020), S. 26-42

Köhler, Carolin; Weidner, Florian; Broll, Wolfgang;
AR training for paragliding pilots: an investigation of user experience and requirements. - In: 2019 21st Symposium on Virtual and Augmented Reality : SVR 2019 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 28-31 October 2019 : proceedings.. - Piscataway, NJ : IEEE, (2019), S. 92-101
Kunert, Christian; Schwandt, Tobias; Broll, Wolfgang;
An efficient diminished reality approach using real-time surface reconstruction. - In: 2019 International Conference on Cyberworlds : CW 2019 : 2-4 October 2019, Kyoto, Japan : proceedings.. - Piscataway, NJ : IEEE, (2019), S. 9-16
Weidner, Florian; Broll, Wolfgang;
Interact with your car: a user-elicited gesture set to inform future in-car user interfaces. - In: MUM 2019 : 18th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia : proceedings : Nov 26 - Nov 29, 2018, Pisa, Italy.. - New York, New York : The Association for Computing Machinery, Inc., (2019), article no. 11, 12 Seiten
Weidner, Florian; Fiedler, Bernhard; Redlich, Johannes; Broll, Wolfgang;
Exploring audiovisual support systems for in-car multiparty conferencing. - In: Audio for virtual, augmented and mixed realities : proceedings of ICSA 2019 : 5th International Conference on Spatial Audio, September 26th to 28th, 2019, Ilmenau, Germany.. - Ilmenau : ilmedia, (2019), S. 85-92

Calling while driving poses a severe safety risk. When more than two people are involved in a call - a conference call - this risk increases even more. Intelligent vehicles could offer support systems that ease the cognitive burden of such a multiparty calls. We explore the possibilities of such advanced driving assistant systems (ADAS) in two ways: first, we investigate object-based spatial audio where each remote caller is modeled as a distinct audio source. Second, we apply a non-intrusive ambient stereoscopic 3D (S3D) visualization that indicates the current speaker and its location. In a between-subject design driving simulator study (n=56), we assess workload, user experience and driving performance. Surprisingly, we found no positive effect of object-based audio. However, we present evidence how a supporting visualization might lower situational stress and increase the systems dependability. We conclude that a supportive and intelligent stereoscopic visualization is a promising candidate for enhancing multiparty conference calls while driving.
Dörner, Ralf; Broll, Wolfgang; Jung, Bernhard; Grimm, Paul; Göbel, Martin;
Einführung in Virtual und Augmented Reality. - In: Virtual und Augmented Reality (VR/AR) : Grundlagen und Methoden der Virtuellen und Augmentierten Realität.. - Berlin : Springer Vieweg, (2019), S. 1-42