Persönliche Liste Prof. Bretschneider

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Richter, Lucas; Bender, Tom; Lenk, Steve; Bretschneider, Peter
Generating synthetic electricity load time series at district scale using probabilistic forecasts. - In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, Bd. 17 (2024), 7, 1634, S. 1-22

Thanks to various European directives, individuals are empowered to share and trade electricity within Renewable Energy Communities, enhancing the operational efficiency of local energy systems. The digital transformation of the energy market enables the integration of decentralized energy resources using cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and artificial intelligence. In order to assess the feasibility of new business models based on data-driven solutions, various electricity consumption time series are necessary at this level of aggregation. Since these are currently not yet available in sufficient quality and quantity, and due to data privacy reasons, synthetic time series are essential in the strategic planning of smart grid energy systems. By enabling the simulation of diverse scenarios, they facilitate the integration of new technologies and the development of effective demand response strategies. Moreover, they provide valuable data for assessing novel load forecasting methodologies that are essential to manage energy efficiently and to ensure grid stability. Therefore, this research proposes a methodology to synthesize electricity consumption time series by applying the Box-Jenkins method, an intelligent sampling technique for data augmentation and a probabilistic forecast model. This novel approach emulates the stochastic nature of electricity consumption time series and synthesizes realistic ones of Renewable Energy Communities concerning seasonal as well as short-term variations and stochasticity. Comparing autocorrelations, distributions of values, and principle components of daily sequences between real and synthetic time series, the results exhibit nearly identical characteristics to the original data and, thus, are usable in designing and studying efficient smart grid systems.



https://doi.org/10.3390/en17071634
Winkelkotte, Martin; Naumann, Steffi; Flemming, Sebastian; Bretschneider, Peter
Machine learning based model fitting concept for energy system components in energy management. - In: Proceedings 33. Workshop Computational Intelligence, (2023), S. 53-59

https://doi.org/10.22032/dbt.59184
Ruhe, Stephan; Schaefer, Kevin; Branz, Stefan; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter; Westermann, Dirk
Design and implementation of a hierarchical Digital Twin for power systems using real-time simulation. - In: Electronics, ISSN 2079-9292, Bd. 12 (2023), 12, 2747, S. 1-20

This paper presents a hierarchical Digital Twin architecture and implementation that uses real-time simulation to emulate the physical grid and support grid planning and operation. With the demand for detailed grid information for automated grid operations and the ongoing transformation of energy systems, the Digital Twin can extend data acquisition by establishing a reliable real-time simulation. The system uses observer algorithms to process model information about the voltage dependencies of grid nodes, providing information about the dynamic behavior of the grid. The architecture implements multiple layers of data monitoring, processing, and simulation to create node-specific Digital Twins that are integrated into a real-time Hardware-in-the-Loop setup. The paper includes a simulation study that validates the accuracy of the Digital Twin, in terms of steady-state conditions, dynamic behavior, and required processing time. The results show that the proposed architecture can replicate the physical grid with high accuracy and corresponding dynamic behavior.



https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12122747
Ruhe, Stephan; Schäfer, Kevin; Alramlawi, Mansour; Geithner, Thomas; El Sayed, Nadim; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Distributed processing system for monitoring using Digital Twins in medium voltage grids. - In: Die Energiewende beschleunigen, (2023), S. 369-374

In recent years, Digital Twins have been increasingly used in power system research and operations to replicate real use-cases in a digital system. Thereby, Digital Twin use-cases range from the replication of individual devices and systems to entire grids. The core of these systems is the emulation based on the real process, whereby the digital model is continuously tracked to provide additional information about the state and parameters of the application. The paper presents a distributed processing system including Digital Twins with a flexible system architecture for data distribution between edge nodes and central applications for analysis and monitoring functions. The Digital Twins include dynamic modeling and monitoring of the behavior of grid nodes, as well as the conversation of the grid's state into an emulation of the entire grid. The system architecture developed implements a distributed topology to handle different levels of data resolution and provides a flexible integration of functionalities to adapt the computation regarding the requirements of the process. Edge computing enables model optimization with high-bandwidth measurements, while central applications can use real-time processing systems to generate a complete overview of the grid. Finally, the system was tested and validated in a laboratory setup with real communication interfaces.



Kummerow, André; Schäfer, Kevin; Monsalve, Cristian; Alramlawi, Mansour; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
A cyber-security testbed for the dynamic operation of transmission power systems. - In: Die Energiewende beschleunigen, (2023), S. 694-699

The increasing IT/OT-convergence introduces new cyber-security threats for the monitoring and control of power sys-tems. Especially the dynamic operation and handling of transient events is highly vulnerable to cyber-attacks and requires an adaptation and extension of existing dynamic control center architectures. This paper describes a cyber-security testbed based on a real-time grid simulator to evaluate the effectiveness and demonstrate the integration of active and passive cyber-security measures like network intrusion detection systems and encryption modules into the dynamic operation of power transmission systems. Also, a message-broker based data stream management allows the integration of conventional control center applications. With that, the cyber-security testbed provides a comprehensive cyber-physical situational awareness for steady state and transient operational conditions in the presence of additional cyber-attacks.



Selzer, Silas A.; Bauer, Fabian; Bohm, Sebastian; Runge, Erich; Bretschneider, Peter
Physics-guided machine learning techniques for improving temperature calculations of high-voltage transmission lines. - In: Die Energiewende beschleunigen, (2023), S. 353-360

The calculation of the temperature of high-voltage transmission lines is usually done by the commercially used standard models, the CIGRE Standard No. 601 and the IEEE Standard No. 738. These turn out to be prone to errors in application. Based on data analysis, new models based on machine learning techniques and their combination with physics-based models, called physics-guided machine learning techniques, were developed and compared with the results of the established physical models and measurement results. The improved models achieve a reduction of the mean absolute estimation error as well as a significant reduction of the values that deviate more than 5 K from the measured conductor temperature. Also, the mean underestimation of the conductor temperature was changed into an applicationtechnically unproblematic overestimation by the transition from the best standard to the best data-scientific model. The optimization of the models could be achieved by eliminating the incorrect determination of the physical parameters, a compensation of the conservative estimation of the physical effects as well as the consideration of the neglected thermal components of the heat balance. The investigations are based on measured data of the conductor temperature and electrical quantities from the grid area of 50Hertz Transmission GmbH.



Bauer, Fabian; Selzer, Silas Aaron; Bretschneider, Peter
Datenanalysemethoden zur Erhöhung der Erklärbarkeit und Optimierung von Machine Learning Modellen. - In: RET.Con 2023, (2023), S. 118-137

Zur Verbesserung von physikalischen Modellen werden in kommerziellen Anwendungen durch die stetige Zunahme an vorhandenen Daten vermehrt Machine Learning Modelle genutzt. Für die Güte der Modelle ist die Identifikation der signifikanten Eingangsvariablen entscheidend, da die Modelle nur so gut sein können, wie die repräsentative Qualität der bereitgestellten Daten. Neben der Optimierung der Machine Learning Modelle wird durch die Datenanalysemethoden die Erklärbarkeit durch die Reduktion der Modellgröße erhöht sowie der Rechenaufwand verringert. In der Arbeit werden verschiedene Filter-Methoden als Untergruppe der Datenanalyseverfahren zur Merkmalsauswahl miteinander verglichen. Anhand synthetischer Daten werden die Fähigkeiten und Besonderheiten der Methoden herausgestellt. Diese Ergebnisse werden anschließend mittels Realdaten aus der Energietechnik verifiziert, die Stärken der Datenanalyse als Vorverarbeitungsschritt aufgezeigt und die Effektivität der Methoden miteinander verglichen. Die Realdaten aus dem Bereich der Energietechnik zeigen, dass die in der Literatur favorisierten, informationstheoretischen Maße Schwächen aufweisen. Vor allem die Redundanzbewertung stellt sich als fehleranfällig heraus. Gerade bei einfachen Abhängigkeiten der Kandidaten- von der Zielvariablen weisen partielle Korrelationsmaße bei komplexen Redundanzen Vorteile auf.



Hoenle, Benedikt; Sommer, Henrik; Gnehr, Wolf-Michael; Bretschneider, Peter
Deep Neural Networks for short-term multivariate solar power predictions from various meteorological forecast data. - In: PESS + PELSS 2022 - Power and Energy Student Summit, (2023), S. 118-123

Renewable energies, such as wind and photovoltaic, are subject to natural fluctuations. However, electrical energy is grid-bound and, unlike other end-use energies, cannot be stored well. Therefore the large expansion of renewables calls for a more dynamic energy management to ensure grid stability and better integration of renewables. The basis for this are reliable and precise power predictions. Recent developments in machine learning give new opportunities to develop more accurate forecasts. This work therefore compares different artificial neural network architectures for short-term power prediction of photovoltaic plants based on various meteorological data. Overall this includes, a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) model, a Long-Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model and two different architectures combining a Convolutional Neural Network and an LSTM model (CNN-LSTM). The work shows a significant advantage of the Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) over simpler Neural Networks which do not use sequential time series data. Furthermore this study presents with the multi-head CNN-LSTM an alternative to the commonly used multi-channel CNN-LSTM model. Overall this paper shows that the more complex artificial neural network architectures offer greater accuracy and therefore are better for photovoltaic power predictions.



Westermann, Dirk; Bretschneider, Peter; Schramm, Dirk; Schröder, Tim; Becker, Thomas; Schlegel, Steffen; Feldhoff, Elisabeth; Winkelkotte, Martin; Naumann, Steffi; Sauerbrey, Juliane; Mansilla, Axel; Schmallenbach, Lutz
ZO.RRO - Zero cross carbon energy system - Transformation des Energiesystems am Fallbeispiel Thüringen : gemeinsamer Abschlussbericht. - Ilmenau : Technische Universität Ilmenau. - 1 Online-Ressource (159 Seiten, 4,83 MB)Laufzeit: 01.04.2019-30.06.2022

https://edocs.tib.eu/files/e01fb23/1870011503.pdf
Feldhoff, Elisabeth; Naumann, Steffi; Schlegel, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter; Westermann, Dirk
Decarbonization of a multi-sectoral energy system with flexible industrial load management using an incentive signal. - In: NEIS 2022, (2022), S. 57-62

Federer, Marika; Müssig, Daniel; Klaiber, Stefan; Lässig, Jörg; Bretschneider, Peter; Lenk, Steve
Application benchmark for quantum optimization on electromobility use case. - In: 2022 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), (2022), insges. 6 S.

Battery electric service vehicles are one step to reduce CO2 emissions in the mobility sector. We present an use case for optimal charging scheduling in combination with local solar power generation to minimize power grid usage. The study compares results obtained with a classical optimizer and with a quantum computing algorithm on real quantum hardware. It is shown that for most benchmark experiments, the quantum computing method yields an optimal solution however the quantum approximate optimization algorithm is more sensitive to penalty factors than the classical optimization. Additionally, we present a comparison of the computing times and give a brief review of the current state of IBM’s gate-based quantum computing.



https://doi.org/10.1109/VPPC55846.2022.10003292
Rippstein, Florian; Lenk, Steve; Rudolph, Martin; Klaiber, Stefan; Bretschneider, Peter
Flexible artificial intelligence optimization for smart home energy systems with V2X. - In: 2022 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), (2022), insges. 6 S.

Battery electric vehicles are able to mitigate against peaks in energy generation and consumption of smart homes, if a bidirectional vehicle-to-home charging concept is established. Additionally, battery electric vehicles can be utilized as energy storage to prevent blackouts, to reduce energy costs and to increase self-sufficiency of these homes. Here, we show an ad-hoc machine learning approach to use vehicle-to-home to optimize renewable energy generation and consumption within a smart home grid. This solution is compared to state-of-the art optimization charging.



https://doi.org/10.1109/VPPC55846.2022.10003438
Fischer, Tobias; Bauer, Fabian; Selzer, Silas; Bretschneider, Peter
Weißes Rauschen basierte Verlustfunktion zur verbesserten Zeitreihenprognose mit künstlichen neuronalen Netzen. - In: Proceedings 32. Workshop Computational Intelligence, (2022), S. 111-118

Monsalve, Cristian; Hirsch, Tilo; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Benefits and threat of business models in the German electrical systems. - In: Big data and smart grids, (2022), insges. 6 S.

This paper presents several key aspects and results as part of the research project “Evaluation of novel Business Models (BMs) in the electrical supply” financed by the German Ministry of Economy and Energy (BMWi). This paper focuses on presenting some of the results from the technical and economical evaluation of the German electrical infrastructure when multiple BMs are implemented by multiple actors of the whole energy system. The motivation of this paper is to demonstrate the contribution of implementing some BMs to the sustainability and controllability of the energy distribution system by assessing some technical indicators such as changes in peak load and availability of load shifting potential in Germany and determining the effects of these BMs.



https://doi.org/10.1109/UPEC55022.2022.9917741
Kharboutli, Samir; Monsalve, Cristian; Bretschneider, Peter
Investigation and application of systemic assessment variables and concepts to developed reference districts. - In: Big data and smart grids, (2022), insges. 5 S.

The focus of the paper is the investigation and application of systemic assessment variables and concepts to developed reference districts. For this purpose, usable variables and concepts are first determined in the context. Then, the electrical energy supply structure of a district is mapped in a time series-based model and extended by different supply variants. For each variant, all evaluation variables are determined. The resulting matrix is used to investigate the applicability, relevance and interdependencies between the evaluation variables.



https://doi.org/10.1109/UPEC55022.2022.9917667
Rösch, Dennis; Farghaly, Omar; Suri, Rohan; Dahane, Pooja; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
VirtualSubstation: an IEC 61850 framework for a Containernet based virtual substation. - In: Big data and smart grids, (2022), insges. 6 S.

Our already presented co-simulation, consisting of a real-time power grid simulation and a virtualization of the communication infrastructure, enables a joint and holistic view of the two subsystems. If the IEC 61850 communication standard is used throughout, a substation can be completely described in terms of network technology in their defined substation configuration language (SCL). Our framework presented here enables the automated initialization of the virtual network and its transfer to co-simulation. The complete mapping of different IEC 61850 communication services generates a complete, process-relevant database of network traffic. For purpose of our co-simulation approach, with coupling on the process bus, the focus lies on the IEC 61850-8-1 Manufacturing Message Specification (MMS) and Generic Object-Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE) communication and the relations between initialized Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs). Based exclusively on IEC 61850 substation configuration descriptions (SCD), the framework enables this implementation of a simplified static communication network using network virtualization. All consisting Access points with underlying IEDs, Logical Devices, Logical Nodes and Data Objects are specified and used to rebuild an existing IEC 61850 communication infrastructure and initialize the relevant communication services. The research shows the possibilities and limitations of the automated generation of the network for use in co-simulation.



https://doi.org/10.1109/UPEC55022.2022.9917877
Feldhoff, Elisabeth; Schlegel, Steffen; Westermann, Dirk; Naumann, Steffi; Bretschneider, Peter
CO2- and cost-optimal multi-energy system modelling considering the provision of operating reserve. - In: 18th International Conference on the European Energy Market (EEM), (2022), insges. 6 S.

Previous efforts to reduce CO2 emissions in the electricity sector have concentrated primarily on the energy supply part. To achieve CO2 minimization in the overall system, ancillary services must also be considered. This paper investigates how a simulation tool consisting of two models can be used to plan a decarbonized and cost-optimal multi-sectoral energy system, considering the energy distribution infrastructure. The assessment of the CO2 reduction associated costs is carried out using numerical case studies based on the example of a region in Germany with a low industrial share for developed scenarios in 2030. The results show that consideration of ancillary service provision in energy system operation leads to significantly higher CO2 emissions and costs than in the energy supply only case.



https://doi.org/10.1109/EEM54602.2022.9921147
Multaheb, Samim; Bauer, Fabian; Bretschneider, Peter; Niggemann, Oliver
Learning physically meaningful representations of energy systems with variational autoencoders. - In: 2022 27th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), (2022), insges. 6 S.

Given the growing number of volatile energy producers and consumers and the limitations of traditional static load prediction models, we have analyzed the ability of neural networks to predict the loads of an electrical transformer and to understand the physical relationships in the electric grid. To do this, we use a variational autoencoder to learn the load behavior of a neighborhood with three houses. Since a variational autoencoder learns a latent representation, we analyzed the possibility of learning physical relationships of the electric grid. By adapting the prediction model to learn a physical variable, namely phase shift, we show that a variational autoencoder can learn physical relations. Our results show a significant improvement in terms of the correlation of the latent and physical variables by integrating prior knowledge in the form of the corresponding power values as the training objective.



https://doi.org/10.1109/ETFA52439.2022.9921550
Alramlawi, Mansour; Monsalve, Cristian; Ruhe, Stephan; Schäfer, Kevin; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Working principle of self adaptive distributed digital twins in power systems. - In: 2022 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM), (2022), insges. 12 S.

Increasing the complexity of the power system architecture led to high complications in controlling and monitoring the modern power system. On the other hand, the growing accuracy in systems modeling and the ability to process huge amounts of data led to the invention of new methods that facilitate monitoring, controlling, and testing operations. One of the most prominent of these methods is what is known as the digital twin (DT), where it has become possible to build accurate and reliable models to conduct the analyzes and studies that are required for complex systems with high accuracy. This paper explains the concept of distributed DTs and their mechanism of operation. Additionally, more focus has been given to demonstrate the self-adaptation capability of these DTs using an online parameter estimation approach. In addition, this paper introduces the preliminary results for testing the concept of distributed DTs using real-time simulators. The results showed that integrating an online parameter optimizer in the distributed DTs improves their performance so that they behave like the physical component with high accuracy.



https://doi.org/10.1109/PESGM48719.2022.9916753
Monsalve, Cristian; Pemsel, Jonas; Nicolai, Steffen; Klaiber, Stefan; Bretschneider, Peter
Technical and economical effects of supply of synthetical methane on the electrical infrastructure in Germany. - In: SEST 2022, (2022), insges. 6 S.

This abstract presents a collection of key aspects and results from part of the research project MethSys: Determination of the effects of renewable methane in transportation and energy system” financed by the German Ministry of Economy and Energy (BMWi). Focus is taken on presenting points regarding the technical and economical evaluation of the German electrical infrastructure for future development scenarios concentrating on the production of renewable methane. The objectives of this paper are to determine the approximate cost for the development of the electrical infrastructure, possible regions with higher potential for renewable methane, and possible synergies with power-to-gas (P2G) technologies.



https://doi.org/10.1109/SEST53650.2022.9898148
Kummerow, André; Dirbas, Mohammad; Monsalve, Cristian; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Robust disturbance classification in power transmission systems with denoising recurrent autoencoders. - In: Sustainable energy, grids and networks, ISSN 2352-4677, Bd. 32 (2022), 100803, S. 1-8

The automated classification of grid disturbances based on phasor measurements is a key technology for the reliable operation of power transmission systems. The predominant use of simulated training data limits the applicability of existing classification approaches due to the missing consideration of measurement errors or data quality issues. To mitigate these shortcomings, this study presents a robust disturbance classification procedure incorporating denoising recurrent autoencoders within a novel two-stage training approach. The developed disturbance classification procedure is evaluated for different noise characteristics and dataset combinations created with an optimization based error model. Experimental results based on a generic power transmission system show superior performance of the proposed two-stage design compared to a conventional, one-stage model training.



https://doi.org/10.1016/j.segan.2022.100803
Rösch, Dennis; Bauer, Thomas; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Delay modeling for virtualization-based Co-simulation of IEC 61850 substations. - In: Journal of cleaner production, ISSN 1879-1786, Bd. 368 (2022), 133179, S. 1-11

Increasing digitization in station automation enables new applications for intelligent functionalities in substations of electrical power systems. The use of IEC 61850 as a uniform communication standard is an important requirement in this context, but also changes the vulnerability to cyber-attacks. Real-time cyber-physical co-simulation platforms are necessary to investigate cyber security threats and countermeasures in digital substations. Essential to the real-time capability and validity of the co-simulation is the compliance with requirements of IEC 61850 - especially the arising transfer times between the substation components. We present here a queue-based delay model for the used Software-Defined-Network architecture to derive a maximum permissible size of the virtual network. This model can capture various influences during the information exchange between OpenFlow-based switches and a centrally hosted controller. The dependency of the transfer time on the number of switches, considered data rates and handover probabilities between controller and switch limits the network size of the virtualization. We present here the adaption of well-known queueing delay models to our IEC 61850 substation use case and their usage in presented co-simulation approach, by taking the network topology, estimated network traffic and simplifications for single-controller architecture with uniformed Open-Flow Switches into account. In this context, the presented architecture of the co-simulation has a structurally limited area of validity, which is introduced and described here analytically. The work also complements already existing delay models by an input prioritization of packet-in events. We can approximate a theoretical limit of 16 sampled values streams in the current setup of co-simulation in a simple and completely interconnected star topology, which will have to highest impact on the transfer time delay.



https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.133179
Rösch, Dennis; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Container-based virtualization of an IEC 61850 substation co-simulation approach. - In: 2022 10th Workshop on Modelling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES), (2022), insges. 6 S.

In automated structures of the power grid, such as the digitized substations, dependencies of the functionality on the communication network are increasingly the focus of considerations. A co-simulation enables the joint and holistic analysis of the two subsystems - the power grid and the network communication infrastructure. Our approach presented here is considered with the real-world requirements of IEC 61850-based substations and is assigned to them. From this, the requirements for co-simulation and coupling of the two subsystems are derived. Using the IEC 61850 communication standard consequently, a substation can be fully described and automatically passed to the co-simulation by a presented framework to perform analyses in real-time online operation. By automation, the framework can reduce the implementation effort, which is usually significantly higher within virtualization than in available network simulation systems. Under certain prerequisites and conditions, our approach enables the generation of valid network traffic, which can be used for downstream analyses of the network.



https://doi.org/10.1109/MSCPES55116.2022.9770163
Kummerow, André; Schäfer, Kevin; Gupta, Parul; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Combined network intrusion and phasor data anomaly detection for secure dynamic control centers. - In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, Bd. 15 (2022), 9, 3455, S. 1-16

The dynamic operation of power transmission systems requires the acquisition of reliable and accurate measurement and state information. The use of TCP/IP-based communication protocols such as IEEE C37.118 or IEC 61850 introduces different gateways to launch cyber-attacks and to compromise major system operation functionalities. Within this study, a combined network intrusion and phasor data anomaly detection system is proposed to enable a secure system operation in the presence of cyber-attacks for dynamic control centers. This includes the utilization of expert-rules, one-class classifiers, as well as recurrent neural networks to monitor different network packet and measurement information. The effectiveness of the proposed network intrusion and phasor data anomaly detection system is shown within a real-time simulation testbed considering multiple operation and cyber-attack conditions.



https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093455
Eckner, Stefanie; Bretschneider, Peter
Multiagent-system based smart charging algorithm for a time-variant set of electric vehicles. - In: 5th E-Mobility Power System Integration Symposium (EMOB 2021), (2022), S. 100-104

The electrification of the mobility sector is of major importance on the way to a carbon-free society. However, delivering the charging power for the increasing number of electric vehicles may create considerable strain for the supply grid. On the other hand, the long parking hours of an average vehicle facilitate the use of smart charging algorithms, which in the future might even provide an operating reserve for the electrical grid. Therefore, a well thought-out approach to private and public charging stations will assure the success of the coupling between the sectors of electricity and mobility. We present a multiagent system, which allocates balanced charging power to satisfy simulated charging requests from a set of charging stations sharing one grid connection point with limited power input. The multiagent system with a time-discretisation of one minute is based on the python osbrain module. The merit function includes the target of meeting all charging demands in the given time and the goal of distributing the power consumption as uniformly over time as possible. A variable set of parameters allows to probe the range between focussing on fulfilment of charging requests and supplying maximum flexibility to the local grid. Additionally, the performance of the multiagent system is discussed in the context of scalability and efficiency of the algorithm.



Kummerow, André; Monsalve, Cristian; Bretschneider, Peter
Siamese recurrent neural networks for the robust classification of grid disturbances in transmission power systems considering unknown events. - In: IET smart grid, ISSN 2515-2947, Bd. 5 (2022), 1, S. 51-61

The automated identification and localisation of grid disturbances is a major research area and key technology for the monitoring and control of future power systems. Current recognition systems rely on sufficient training data and are very error-prone to disturbance events, which are unseen during training. This study introduces a robust Siamese recurrent neural network using attention-based embedding functions to simultaneously identify and locate disturbances from synchrophasor data. Additionally, a novel double-sigmoid classifier is introduced for reliable differentiation between known and unknown disturbance types and locations. Different models are evaluated within an open-set classification problem for a generic power transmission system considering different unknown disturbance events. A detailed analysis of the results is provided and classification results are compared with a state-of-the-art open-set classifier.



https://doi.org/10.1049/stg2.12051
Sommer, Henrik; Winkelkotte, Martin; Bauer, Fabian; Bretschneider, Peter
Hybrid-approach for unit commitment simulation combining a fundamental model with a neural network. - In: 11th Solar & Storage Power System Integration Workshop (SIW 2021), (2021), insges. 7 S.

Due to the low storage capacities of the electrical energy supply system, feed-in and feed-out must be balanced at all times. In liberalized energy markets, the decision which powerplants are used to cover the load is not made by a single authority but in a decentralized way. The resulting unit commitment (UC) directly relates to the CO2 emissions, electricity costs as well as the amount and type of primary energies consumed. Consequently, the UC is a vital component to understand and optimize the interdependencies in an energy supply system. To model the UC most realistically we developed a hybrid model consisting of a merit order based fundamental model (FM) followed by an artificial neural network (ANN). The FM finds the cost-optimal UC under the given circumstances which then serves as input for the ANN which models the deviation between cost-optimal and real-world UC based on historic data. To increase model accuracy an input variable selection and a hyperparameter optimization are conducted. Finally, a case study for the German market region is conducted and the hybrid model is compared to standalone FM and ANN models. The results suggest that the hybrid model is superior in modeling the aggregated UC decision in a real-world energy supply system.



https://doi.org/10.1049/icp.2021.2498
Fischer, Tobias Merlin; Bauer, Fabian; Selzer, Silas Aaron; Bretschneider, Peter
Genetische Algorithmen zur Hyperparameteroptimierung künstlicher neuronaler Netze für die Energiezeitreihenprognose. - In: Proceedings 31. Workshop Computational Intelligence, (2021), S. 263-284

Selzer, Silas Aaron; Bauer, Fabian; Bohm, Sebastian; Bretschneider, Peter; Runge, Erich
Physik-geführte NARXnets (PGNARXnets) zur Zeitreihenvorhersage. - In: Proceedings 31. Workshop Computational Intelligence, (2021), S. 235-261

Monsalve, Cristian; Naumann, Steffi; Kharboutli, Samir; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Modelling and coupling multi-energy systems for supplying methane to transportation sector in Germany. - In: ETG Congress 2021, (2021), S. 353-357

The MethQuest research project is about creating new processes for generating renewable gas fuels and progressing existing technologies. At the same time, the project investigates appropriate optimization concepts for motors and engines in cars, ships and electric power generation systems. In addition, MethQuest aims to develop solutions for linking infra-structure for electricity, gas and heat and researches the possible effects and benefits the large-scale introduction of renewable gas might have in the energy sector in Germany. The project is divided into several individual projects in order to deal with the large topic area in a targeted manner. The project MethSys is developing a whole-area simulation for Germany covering the supply of renewable energy methane and the entire logistics chain from generation, transport and storage through to end-users. The group is likewise creating a comprehensive concept illustrating how the operation of Power-to-Gas (P2G) plants can best be controlled across the entire energy system to ensure an optimum grid operation. The paper describes the models and methodology used for evaluating technically electric distribution grid and assessing regional infrastructure requirements for integrating P2G that allow supplying the transportation sector under different market development scenarios.



https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9469637
Kharboutli, Samir; Bretschneider, Peter
Analysis of methodologies for systemic assessment of buildings and districts. - In: ETG Congress 2021, (2021), S. 383-388

The focus of the paper is the analysis of different methodologies for the evaluation of systemic aspects of buildings and districts. A distinction is made between the objectives of economy, ecology, system serviceability and resilience. For each sub-area, common quantification options are analysed and evaluated in order to present the research needs and further development possibilities with regard to a holistic evaluation. This intended evaluation will have to take different, possibly conflicting, criteria into account, for which a multi-cultural objective function is likely to be formulated in the case of the search for the optimal solution.



https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9469641
Naumann, Steffi; Bretschneider, Peter
Planning strategy for a zero carbon cross sectoral energy system. - In: ETG Congress 2021, (2021), S. 13-18

This paper presents a new multi-criteria optimization model for energy system planning that combines the sectors of electricity, heat, material use (gas, fuels, H2) and mobility. In contrast to other multi-criteria approaches for energy-system-planning the aim of the presented model is to find an optimal set of technologies to reduce and finally provide a CO2 neutral energy system by 2050 at the latest in a cost-optimal manner. To do so, a wide set of generation and storage technologies as well as the sector connecting Power-to-X technologies are modeled in a technical and economical manner. The planning process is restricted by realistic assumptions for the potentials and the annual expansion rates for the different technologies. To depict the uncertain political and social conditions, a euphoric and a conservative scenario are investigated. The different accounting methods for the emissions are discussed to find an energy system that is not strongly dependent on the remaining German energy system. The assumptions and first results of the case study for Thuringia are presented and discussed in the paper.



https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9469518
Monsalve, Cristian; Alramlawi, Mansour; Ruhe, Stephan; Schäfer, Kevin; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
A novel framework architecture for distributed digital twins in power systems. - In: ETG Congress 2021, (2021), S. 483-488

This paper presents a comprehensive approach of a novel framework architecture for distributed digital twins (DTs) in power systems. This scientific work is a part of the research project AUTOGRID1, which goal is the development and investigation of new methods and algorithms to increase the automation-level for the distribution grid operation based on distributed DTs.. A higher automation level is required in order to maintain the stability and safe operation of the grid under high penetration of renewable energies and power electronic devices. In this sense, the DTs are an important part of this project, because they allow enhancing the system observability, capture systems dynamic and adapt the DT models according to changes and events in the real systems. Hence, this paper describes a framework architecture for coupling multiple DT models, their requirements and the implemented functionalities in each DT.



https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9469650
Kummerow, André; Dirbas, Mohammad; Monsalve, Cristian; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Influence of autoregressive noise on phasor data based disturbance classification. - In: SEST’21, (2021), insges. 6 S.

The automated classification of grid disturbances based on phasor measurement units (PMU) is a key application for a fast and reliable monitoring and control of future power systems. The predominant use of dynamic simulations for the training of the classification models can lead to severe misclassifications during the application phase due to measurement induced error signals. As an advancement to standard white noise approaches, an optimization-based error model is introduced for the synthesis of PMU measurement signals with specific noise characteristics. This approach allows a flexible creation of more sophisticated error signals. Extensive simulation studies are performed for a disturbance classification model based on a recurrent neural network using a large electrical transmission grid.



https://doi.org/10.1109/SEST50973.2021.9543278
Rösch, Dennis; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Combined simulation and virtualization approach for interconnected substation automation. - In: 2021 6th International Conference on Smart and Sustainable Technologies (SpliTech), (2021), insges. 6 S.

The interaction between communication technology and the power grids is a major issue in research studies to investigate the effect of cyberattacks, communication failures and other errors to the physical behavior of the power grid. Especially the interconnected digitalized substations of the modern power grids are of interest due to their high-risk potential and dependence of communication technology. Disturbances and negative influences on these key control entities can affect the entire underlying power supply as a critical infrastructure. Recent publications and research projects are trying to investigate the effects by using simulation tools within co-simulation approaches. In this paper, we present a novel approach using a conventional real-time power grid simulation and to combine it with a container-based virtualization of the communication infrastructure. The communication infrastructure contains all the important and necessary components, hosts, devices, and communication aspects to set the network traffic and interactivity of substation automation setups regarding the IEC 61850 standard. This paper will show the feasibility of combining online real-time grid simulation to a container-based virtualization on the process level. The evaluation is done by analyzing occurred time delays and latency about requirements given by IEC 61850 standard. A validation against these transmission time requirements is presented to provide an indication of the feasibility of our approach.



https://doi.org/10.23919/SpliTech52315.2021.9566380
Sommer, Henrik; Winkelkotte, Martin; Bretschneider, Peter
Optimization of a parametric fundamental model for unit commitment modeling. - In: Von Komponenten bis zum Gesamtsystem für die Energiewende, (2021), S. 525-530

Sommer, Henrik; Winkelkotte, Martin; Bretschneider, Peter
Optimierung eines parametrischen Fundamentalmodells zur Kraftwerkseinsatzplanung. - In: RET.Con 2021, (2021), S. 162-170

Die Strompreisprognose stellt eine wichtige sehr Eingangsgröße für die Optimierung der eigenen Position am Strommarkt dar. Mit ihrer Hilfe lassen sich Handelserlöse vergrößern und Risiken minimieren. Für die Prognose kommen dabei verschiedene Verfahren zum Einsatz. Eine Modellierungsmethode sind die sogenannten Fundamentalmodelle (FM). In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein neuer Ansatz vorgeschlagen und untersucht, der einen Beitrag zur Verbesserung der Prognosegüte von datensparsamen FM leistet. Diese Verbesserung betrifft insbesondere die Güte des zu prognostizierenden Kraftwerkseinsatzes, welcher eine signifikante Zwischengröße bei der Strompreisprognose mit FM darstellt. Die Arbeit ist folgendermaßen aufgebaut: Abschnitt 1 liefert eine kurze Einführung und Übersicht zum Thema der Strompreisprognose. Der Abschnitt 2 erläutert das Funktionsprinzip eines FM, bevor im Abschnitt 3 das weiterentwickelte Modell beschrieben wird. Im Abschnitt 4 werden die Ergebnisse einer exemplarischen Untersuchung vorgestellt und in Abschnitt 5 evaluiert.



Bauer, Fabian; Hagner, Jessica; Bretschneider, Peter; Klaiber, Stefan
Improvement of the prediction quality of electrical load profiles with artificial neural networks. - In: Machine Learning for Cyber Physical Systems, (2021), S. 13-21

Against the backdrop of the economically and ecologically optimal management of electrical energy systems, accurate predictions of consumption load profiles play an important role. On this basis, it is possible to plan and implement the use of controllable energy generation and storage systems as well as energy procurement with the required lead-time, taking into account the technical and contractual boundary conditions.The recorded electrical load profiles will increase considerably in the course of the digitization of the energy industry. In order to make the most accurate predictions possible, it is necessary to develop and investigate models that take account of the growing quantity structure and, due to the significantly higher number of observations, improve the forecasting quality as far as possible.Artificial neural networks (ANN) are increasingly being used to solve non-linear problems for a growing amount of data that is affected by human and other unpredictable influences. Consequently, the model approach of an ANN is chosen for predicting load profiles. Aim of the thesis is the simulative investigation and the evaluation of the quality and optimality of a prediction model based on an ANN for electrical load profiles.



Flemming, Sebastian; Naumann, Steffi; Bretschneider, Peter
Energie- und Lademanagement für eine CO2-neutralen Beladung von batterieelektrisch betriebenen Service-Fahrzeugen auf dem Flughafenvorfeld. - In: RET.Con 2020, (2020), S. 188-196

Im Projekt: ALEC (Alternation * Light * Electric * Constructions) ist eine der Zielstellungen die Realisierung einer CO2-neutralen elektrischen Nachladung von batterieelektrisch betriebenen Service-Fahrzeugen auf dem Flughafenvorfeld zu ermöglichen. Für die Umsetzung der obenstehenden Zielsetzung stellen die Autoren ihr Konzept und den Umsetzungstand zum Zusammenspiel zwischen lokalem Lademanagementsystem (LMS) und überlagertem Energiemanagementsystem (üEMS) vor. Das LMS übernimmt hierbei die Funktion der Datenaufbereitung und -aggregation verschiedener Informationen der einzelnen Elektrofahrzeuge. Unter Verwendung der aggregierten Informationen aus den LMS und der erwarteten Energiebereitstellung aus lokalen, erneuerbaren Quellen ermittelt das üEMS die optimale, CO2-minimale elektrische Nachladung der Elektrofahrzeugflotte auf dem Flughafenvorfeld. Der auf diesem Weg generierte Flottenladefahrplan wird abschließend im LMS disaggregiert und fahrzeugspezifische Ladefahrpläne generiert.



https://dx.doi.org/10.22032/dbt.46248
Ruhe, Stephan; Fechner, Max; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Simulation of coupled components within Power-Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHiL) test bench. - In: Verifying the targets, (2020), insges. 6 S.

Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHiL) becomes more and more an important part at the investigation of dynamics and stability issues of the electrical grids. As derived from Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) approach, one of the central PHiL requirements is to feedback measurement signals into the simulation. In PHIL applications, the operational behavior of a connected device is integrated within real-time simulations. With the integration of the Hardware under Test (HuT) into a PHiL test bench, stability issues may arise. Therefore, this paper focuses on the stability investigation and the description of typical PHiL setup and condititions. The frequency domain modelling reveals phenomenon of instability as well as concepts of Interface Algorithm (IA) and Compensation Methods (CM). To investigate the behavior of different devices as HuT, also the HuT is modelled and simulated in the real time environment. In the next step, the analog loopback integrates HuT models into PHiL simulation by using HYPERSIM from OPAL-RT as simulation software (time domain). Analog loopback introduces time delay into the PHiL simulation that would also occur in real PHiL applications with connected devices to build a more realistic environment. The simulation with analog loopback consists of implemented IAs which feedback operational behavior of HuT models into PHiL test bench. In selected simulation approaches, the mentioned technique loops back currents of various loads and inverters. Therefore it is possible to evaluate the feedback of devices with different described methods and their impact on stability and signal fidelity.



https://doi.org/10.1109/UPEC49904.2020.9209844
Pemsel, Jonas; Warweg, Oliver; Bretschneider, Peter
Application of blockchain technology for electricity supplier change. - In: 2020 17th International Conference on the European Energy Market (EEM), (2020), insges. 6 S.

In the course of digitalization various technologies which could deeply transform present processes are put forth. As such an innovation, blockchain is attributed to have potential to make energy industry procedures more efficient and to simplify them. The aim of this paper is to examine the applicability of this technology using the change of power supplier as an example. Based on Ethereum a proper blockchain solution for the use-case is developed using smart contracts to handle all processes of the example. Beside qualitative evaluation of manipulation security and privacy, a test scenario is built to measure the speed in which the developed solution allows supplier changes.



https://doi.org/10.1109/EEM49802.2020.9221923
Lenk, Steve; Arnoldt, Alexander; Rösch, Dennis; Bretschneider, Peter
Hardware/Software architecture to investigate resilience in energy management for smart grids. - In: Smart grids: key enablers of a green power system, (2020), S. 51-55

In the age of digitization, for critical infrastructures arises new challenges due to the amount of data to handle, the increasing automation level and threats to cybersecurity. Resilience of critical systems, i. e., to be prepared for and to prevent threats, to protect systems against them, to respond to threats and to recover from them, rises in priority. Here, we present a hardware-software architecture design for energy management systems as part of critical energy infrastructures, which is scalable, distributable, parallelizable and adaptable. Therefore, it is capable to handle the increasing amount of data but it also allows an in-depth monitoring. This enables the investigation of the impact of diverse threat scenarios like technical errors, human failure and cyber attacks. Thus, it is the basis for developing resilient algorithms, improved communications channels and monitoring mechanisms for energy management systems.



https://doi.org/10.1109/ISGT-Europe47291.2020.9248776
Klaiber, Stefan; Bauer, Fabian; Bretschneider, Peter
Improvement of grid loss forecast for energy transmission grids :
Verbesserung der Netzverlustprognose für Energieübertragungsnetze. - In: Automatisierungstechnik, ISSN 2196-677X, Bd. 68 (2020), 9, S. 738-749

Bei der Energieübertragung entstehen Netzverluste in den Leitungen und Betriebsmitteln des elektrischen Energiesystems. Die Höhe der Netzverluste ist sowohl von der Netzlast als auch von zahlreichen weiteren Einflussgrößen abhängig. Einen besonderen Einfluss hat dabei die fluktuierende und größtenteils verbrauchsferne Erzeugung durch erneuerbare Energien. Die Übertragungsnetzbetreiber müssen die elektrische Energie zum Ausgleich der Netzverluste im Voraus beschaffen. Um die benötigte Ausgleichsenergie möglichst kostenminimal einzukaufen, ist eine genaue Prognose der Netzverluste notwendig. Im Rahmen des vorliegenden Beitrags wird ein Verfahren vorgestellt, das für die Prognose der Netzverluste im Übertragungsnetz der 50Hertz Transmission GmbH zum Einsatz kommt. Als Modellansatz der Prognosemethode werden Künstliche Neuronale Netze verwendet. Das als Ergebnis der Arbeiten entwickelte Modell für die Netzverlustprognose steigert die Prognosegüte im Vergleich zum bisherigen Modell um sieben Prozent und befindet sich bei 50Hertz seit Juni 2019 im operativen Einsatz.



https://doi.org/10.1515/auto-2020-0076
Kummerow, André; Monsalve, Cristian; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Simultaneous online identification and localization of disturbances in power transmission systems. - In: New businesses for energy transition, (2019), insges. 5 S.

Within this survey an approach is presented for the simultaneous online identification and localization of grid disturbances in transmission power systems using different techniques for multivariate time series classification. For the generation of the training data dynamic simulations are performed using DIgSILENT® PowerFactory combined with a Monte Carlo based initial state selection. Within this survey different classifiers are developed and compared with each other including dynamic time warping, support vector machines, shapelets, recurrent neural networks and random forests. The performance is evaluated in terms of classification accuracy and prediction time.



https://doi.org/10.1109/ISGTEurope.2019.8905711
Arnoldt, Alexander; Bretschneider, Peter
Model predictive control considering forecast deviation in local districts. - In: 16th International Conference on the European Energy Market (EEM), (2019), insges. 5 S.

The state of the art in science is to take into account forecast uncertainties in optimization either in the form of variant calculations or in stochastic optimization models. This paper presents an alternative approach for the consideration of forecast uncertainties within model predictive control. The approach defines a guaranteed flexibility range, which is responsible for the compensation of expected forecast errors. It is proven that the risk can be reduced with the help of quantiles based flexibility bands. To implement the approach, a controllable resource is required in the energy system. In this case it is an energy storage device. The result shows that with the help of the new approach it is possible to minimize the forecast uncertainties in the local energy system and thus reduce the impact on the overall system. With this algorithmic approach, the planning reliability in the overall energy system is to be increased.



https://doi.org/10.1109/EEM.2019.8916514
Albayrak, Sahin; Bretschneider, Peter; El Sayed, Nadim; Freund, Daniel; Hühn, Thomas; Jiang, Teng; Khan, Manzoor Achmed; Malsch, Michael; Nicolai, Steffen; Novitskiy, Alexander; Prinz, Steffen; Rädel, Uwe; Rüster, Christian; Ruhe, Stephan; Schäfer, Kevin; Schaller, Falk; Schlegel, Steffen; Schönfeld, Benjamin; Westermann, Dirk; Yang, Shangdan
Robuste Steuerung- und Regelung von Verteilernetzen mit hohem Anteil regelfähiger Erzeuger und Lasten mit dem Ansatz Flexible AC Distribution Systems (FACDS) - VEREDELE : Abschlussbericht : Laufzeit: 01.08.2015-31.12.2018. - [Ilmenau] : Fraunhofer IOSB-AST. - 1 Online-Ressource (152 Seiten, 8,94 MB)Förderkennzeichen BMWi 0325800A-F

https://doi.org/10.2314/KXP:1680890948
Kummerow, André; Rösch, Dennis; Monsalve, Cristian; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter; Brosinsky, Christoph; Westermann, Dirk
Challenges and opportunities for phasor data based event detection in transmission control centers under cyber security constraints. - In: 2019 IEEE Milan PowerTech, (2019), insges. 6 S.

https://doi.org/10.1109/PTC.2019.8810711
Kummerow, André; Brosinsky, Christoph; Monsalve, Cristian; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter; Westermann, Dirk
PMU-based online and offline applications for modern power system control centers in hybrid AC-HVDC transmission systems. - In: Internationaler ETG-Kongress 2019, (2019), S. 405-410

Flemming, Sebastian; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Konzept für ein energieeffizientes Industriegebiet Erfurter Kreuz. - In: RET.Con 2018, (2018), S. 149-153

Im Projekt: "Konzept für ein energieeffizientes Industriegebiet Erfurter Kreuz" wurden mögliche Synergiepotentiale bei einer energetischen Kopplung von mehreren räumlich benachbarten bzw. in einem Industriegebiet ansässigen Unternehmen untersucht und ökonomisch und ökologisch bewertet. Im Fokus der Untersuchung standen Varianten zur energetischen Kopplung für verschiedene Energieformen bis hin zur Integration zusätzlicher Erzeugungsanlagen zur nachhaltigen Bereitstellung von elektrischer und/oder thermischer Energie.



https://doi.org/10.22032/dbt.45832
Kummerow, André; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Outlier detection methods for uncovering of critical events in historical phasor measurement records. - In: 2018 3rd International Conference on Power and Renewable Energy, (2018), 08006, S. 1-6

The scope of this survey is the uncovering of potential critical events from mixed PMU data sets. An unsupervised procedure is introduced with the use of different outlier detection methods. For that, different techniques for signal analysis are used to generate features in time and frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear dimension reduction techniques. That approach enables the exploration of critical grid dynamics in power systems without prior knowledge about existing failure patterns. Furthermore new failure patterns can be extracted for the creation of training data sets used for online detection algorithms.



https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186408006
Kummerow, André; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Spatial and temporal PMU data compression for efficient data archiving in modern control centres. - In: 2018 IEEE International Energy Conference (ENERGYCON), ISBN 978-1-5386-3669-5, (2018), insges. 6 S.

The scope of this survey is the compression of PMU data by eliminating redundant information with statistical methods. With that the storage demand in wide area monitoring systems for archiving massive phasor data can be significantly reduced and enables the efficient integration of PMU based applications in modern control centres. Within this paper a general concept is introduced for data reduction in space and time dimension combining different techniques from dimensionality reduction. For this purpose several unsupervised statistical learning methods (e.g. PCA, ICA, NMF) are tested using a real PMU measurement dataset.



https://doi.org/10.1109/ENERGYCON.2018.8398809
Naumann, Steffi; Warweg, Oliver; Klaiber, Stefan; Bretschneider, Peter
A smart market approach to coordinate market and grid operations. - In: 2018 15th International Conference on the European Energy Market (EEM), ISBN 978-1-5386-1488-4, (2018), insges. 5 S.

Within the venture "REGEES" (REGenerative rEnewable Electricity System) a new approach for a Coordinated Market Grid Operation Management (CMGOM) was developed. It envisages the extension of the balancing process of Balance Responsible Party (BRP) including information of current or estimated grid situation. This paper discusses two different approaches to calculate the restrictions for BRPs by the DSO and the resultant consequences for BRPs optimization. The approaches are applied and assessed in test cases that show their benefits and disadvantages.



https://doi.org/10.1109/EEM.2018.8469214
Ruhe, Stephan; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Modelling and simulation of electrical phenomena in a real time test bench. - In: 2018 53rd International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), ISBN 978-1-5386-2910-9, (2018), insges. 6 S.

The energy transition main targets are increase of energy efficiency and promotion of renewable technologies, hence the number of components with power electronics is growing in the electrical system. The research project VEREDELE examines these effects and resulting interactions in order to identify possible challenges and develop suitable solutions. Especially active components, such as electric vehicles, pose major challenges for the modelling and simulation of these devices. The Power-Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) test bed that built up is a solution to this problem and allows the integration of real devices (loads and feeds) into a grid simulation. A model library developed for system tests, which makes it possible to generate any system states to monitor the real behaviour of the equipment and to conclude on potential critical grid states. Furthermore, the characteristics of the signal source of the simulation system examined in this paper and an evaluation of the usability of the system for the intended investigations is given.



https://doi.org/10.1109/UPEC.2018.8542092
Yang, Shangdan; Ruhe, Stephan; Schaller, Falk; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Dynamic simulation of low-voltage distribution grid with integration of power electronics coupled loads and generators. - In: 2018 53rd International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), ISBN 978-1-5386-2910-9, (2018), insges. 5 S.

More and more active components, i.e. renewable generators, controllable loads, and storages, were integrated to low-voltage distribution grids. They were often interfaced with power electronics and their active participation in the power system may lead to voltage instabilities and power quality problems. Therefore, one research topic was to analyse the dynamic interactions between these active components, and to develop appropriate control architecture and techniques, which are able to avoid the corresponding instabilities and improve the power quality in the low voltage grids. One challenge of such dynamic simulation was to simulate the interacted system with time resolution of millisecond and to ensure the synchronization between them. In this paper, the suitable dynamic models of single-phase power electronic load and three-phase power electronic generator were conducted. These dynamic models were simulated and validated by the voltage-step-response, respectively. The voltage unbalance was used to quantify the interactions between the dynamic models and grid. In the steady state, the power electronic load induced less voltage unbalance comparing to the conventional passive load, because the power electronic load had better power factor. In certain dynamic processes, with the higher penetration of PE components in the LV grid, we observed the significant increase of voltage unbalance, which was induced by the interactions between the controllers of the active components. Such effects should be considered in the design of low-voltage gird system and its components.



https://doi.org/10.1109/UPEC.2018.8542090
Naumann, Steffi; Klaiber, Stefan; Kummerow, André; Bretschneider, Peter
Simulation of coordinated market grid operations considering uncertainties. - In: 2018 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT-Europe), (2018), S. 1-6

Within the venture "REGEES" (REGenerative rEnewable Electricity System) a new approach for a Coordinated Market Grid Operation Management (CMGOM) was developed. This approach is investigated in a simulation considering uncertainties. Therefore, the energy time series generator as a method to generate time series for demand and feed-in is described and used to generate simulation input in the form of forecast-scenarios for load and feed-in. Uncertainties in the form of forecast errors and stochastic time series properties are taken into account. The optimization problem, which represents the mathematical description for the acquisition and balancing process of the Balance Responsible Party (BRP), is introduced. Finally, the energy system simulation is described for a test case in order to evaluate the CMGOM approach with consideration of uncertainty. For this purpose, deterministic optimization and two versions of optimization with uncertainties are compared.



https://doi.org/10.1109/ISGTEurope.2018.8571833
Kummerow, André; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Ensemble approach for automated extraction of critical events from mixed historical PMU data sets. - In: 2018 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM), (2018), insges. 5 S.

The scope of this survey is the automated extraction of critical events from mixed PMU data sets without prior knowledge about existing failure patterns. An unsupervised procedure is introduced that identifies arbitrary disturbance types (e.g. voltage sags, frequency drops, oscillations) using an ensemble outlier detection approach. For that, different techniques for signal analysis are used to generate features in time and frequency domain. That approach enables the exploration of critical grid dynamics in power systems. Furthermore new failure patterns can be extracted for the creation of training datasets used for online detection algorithms.



https://doi.org/10.1109/PESGM.2018.8586641
Kharboutli, Samir; Flemming, Sebastian; Bretschneider, Peter
Tiefenbohrung : "Sektorenkopplung". - Aachen : Wissenschaftliche Begleitforschung_ENERGIEWENDEBAUEN, RWTH Aachen University, Lehrstuhl für Gebäude- und Raumklimatechnik. - 1 Online-Ressource (41 Seiten, 30,1 MB). - (Schriftenreihe) ISBN 978-3-942789-96-7
Literaturverzeichnis: Seite 35-37

https://edocs.tib.eu/files/e01fn19/1676399801.pdf
Klaiber, Stefan; Naumann, Steffi; Bretschneider, Peter; Arendarski, Bartlomiej; Kormarnicki, Przemyslaw; Richter, André; Wolter, Martin; Schlegel, Steffen; Westermann, Dirk; Duckheim, Mathias; Donlagic, Tarik
REGEES - Regenerative electrical power system - 100% integration of renewables in 2030; optimal operation and control strategies for a reliable electrical power system in Germany with total integration of renewable energy infeed in 2030 :
Verbundprojekt "REGEES": Optimale Betriebs- und Regelungsstrategien für das zuverlässige elektrische Energieversorgungssystem Deutschlands bei vollständiger Integration der Einspeisung aus erneuerbaren Energien im Zeithorizont 2030 : Schlussbericht REGEES. - [Ilmenau] : Fraunhofer IOSB-AST. - 1 Online-Ressource (159 Seiten, 10,26 MB)Förderkennzeichen BMWi 0325779A-D. - Verbund-Nummer 01157482

https://doi.org/10.2314/KXP:1665338806
Klaiber, Stefan; Naumann, Steffi; Warweg, Oliver; Bretschneider, Peter
A new operation management approach to coordinate market and grid oerations. - In: International ETG Congress 2017, (2017), S. 167-172

Yang, Shangdan; Schaller, Falk; Schönfeld, Benjamin; Schlegel, Steffen; Fischer, Benjamin; Jiang, Teng; Nicolai, Steffen; Prinz, Steffen; Malsch, Michael; Westermann, Dirk; Bretschneider, Peter
A cross voltage-levels simulation approach for interaction analysis in converter-dominated distribution networks :
Spannungsebenen-übergreifende Simulation zur Wechselwirkungsuntersuchung in Stromrichter-dominierten Verteilernetzen. - In: International ETG Congress 2017, (2017), S. 218-223

Zimmermann, Tobias; Klaiber, Stefan; Bretschneider, Peter; Naumann, Steffi
Acquisition of a balance responsible party under grid restrictions in an extended scheduling system. - In: 2017 14th International Conference on the European Energy Market (EEM), ISBN 978-1-5090-5499-2, (2017), insges. 6 S.

https://doi.org/10.1109/EEM.2017.7981889
Dinther, Clemens; vanFey, Bernhard; Renelt, Sven; Strüker, Jens; Flath, Christoph; Terzidis, Orestis; Bretschneider, Peter
Dient die 10-Punkte-Agenda der Bundesregierung einer erfolgreichen Energiewende?. - In: Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen, ISSN 0013-743X, Bd. 67 (2017), 3, S. 17-22

Klaiber, Stefan; Waczowicz, Simon; Konotop, Irina; Westermann, Dirk; Mikut, Ralf; Bretschneider, Peter
Forecast of price elastic load behavior :
Prognose für preisbeeinflusstes Verbrauchsverhalten. - In: Automatisierungstechnik, ISSN 2196-677X, Bd. 65 (2017), 3, S. 179-188

https://doi.org/10.1515/auto-2016-0125
Bretschneider, Peter; Bernard, Thomas; Herzog, Reinhard; Tippmann, Volker; Warweg, Oliver; Naumann, Steffi
Mit dem Internet der Dinge vom Gebäude- zum Stadtteil-Energiemanagement. - In: VDE-Kongress 2016, (2016), insges. 6 S.

Beyer, Daniel; Ruhe, Stephan; Bretschneider, Peter; Ehrhardt, Jens
Results of a Monte Carlo based risk analysis on the impact of PEVs to the distribution grid. - In: 2016 IEEE International Energy Conference (ENERGYCON), ISBN 978-1-4673-8463-6, (2016), insges. 7 S.

This paper presents the study results of possible plug in electric vehicle (PEV) integration potentials in a commonly occurring rural distribution grid in Germany as a worst case scenario simulation. This worst case consideration means, that all the simulations are running at a fix defined load point at one specific moment in time. After the simulation case definition, like e.g. the so called "strong load case", the different in Germany commonly occurring PEV-classes are connected step by step to the 0,4 kV grid. So it is possible to compute the maximum integrable amount of PEVs (of each class) in dependency on the grid operation risks. As the core method the conventional Monte Carlo approach were used in a self-implemented characteristic.



https://doi.org/10.1109/ENERGYCON.2016.7514069
Zimmermann, Tobias; Klaiber, Stefan; Bretschneider, Peter
A Market System Operator as a new role to balance the distribution grid and to coordinate market and grid operations. - In: 2016 IEEE International Energy Conference (ENERGYCON), ISBN 978-1-4673-8463-6, (2016), insges. 6 S.

An approach for an extended market grid operation is introduced in this paper. Therefore a Market System Operator as a new role in the electricity economy is defined and an extended ENTSO-e scheduling system is developed. Additionally a traffic light system for distribution grids is integrated. The special part of renewable energy sources with their specific character is taken into account. The aim is to retain a sustainable and reliable electricity supply system in Germany while and after the energy transition and to keep a free and liberalized electricity market as per specification from EU commission and German government. The approach helps to extend existing procedures without revising existing role models. This strengthens stakeholders and system operators as well as their communication.



https://doi.org/10.1109/ENERGYCON.2016.7514065
Rublack, Liane; Warweg, Oliver; Bretschneider, Peter; Freund, Sebastian; Bieber, Mathilde
Sensitivity analysis of adiabatic compressed air energy storage. - In: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, Europe, ISBN 978-1-5090-3358-4, (2016), insges. 6 S.

The increasing use of fluctuating renewable energy represents a challenge for the German electricity market. Electricity storage plants can provide flexibility to the energy system and the development of new, efficient and economical energy storage technologies is of great importance. In this paper, the use of compressed air energy storage plants in the German electricity market is simulated and a sensitivity analysis is carried out. The optimization of the system is done to minimize at each time step the total system costs. The analysis shows the influence of storage plant parameters such as efficiency, storage capacity and natural gas usage on the dispatch and operation hours. It is performed over one year and for three different future scenarios. The results indicate that utilization of storage plants will increase in each scenario considered from 2025 to 2035 but remains in most cases significantly below the maximum capacity of 3000 h/a power generation. While the operation of storage plants lowers the total electricity cost, earnings per plant and profits are not necessarily positive: the wholesale price signals do not create enough revenues to justify the investment in CAES plants.



https://doi.org/10.1109/ISGTEurope.2016.7856246
Arnoldt, Alexander; Dahn, Nikolas; Ruhe, Stephan; Warweg, Oliver; Wenk, Tanja; Bretschneider, Peter
Abschlussbericht intelligentes Last und Lademanagement : Teilvorhaben des Fraunhofer IOSB-AST im Verbundvorhaben sMobiliTy
Revision: 1.0. - [Ilmenau] : Fraunhofer IOSB, Institutsteil Angewandte Systemtechnik AST. - 1 Online-Ressource (170 Seiten, 7,2 MB)Förderkennzeichen BMBF 01ME12073. - Verbund-Nummer 01132985

https://edocs.tib.eu/files/e01fb16/872858774.pdf
Platzer, Werner; Boie, Inga; Ragwitz, Mario; Kost, Christoph; Thoma, Jürgen; Vogel, Alex; Fluri, Thomas; Pfeiffer, Wulf; Burmeister, Frank; Tham, Nils; Pudlik, Martin; Bohn, Sven; Agsten, Michael; Bretschneider, Peter; Westermann, Dirk; Kranzer, Dirk; Schlegl, Thomas
Fraunhofer Zukunftsthemen "SUPERGRID" : Supergrid - Ansatz für die Integration von Erneuerbaren Energien in Europa und Nordafrika. - Freiburg : Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE. - 37 Seiten
Konotop, Irina; Waczowicz, Simon; Klaiber, Stefan; Bretschneider, Peter; Mikut, Ralf; Westermann, Dirk
Investigation and mathematical modelling of the impact of incentive signals to consumers on their consumption, load forecast and network operation. - In: IET generation, transmission & distribution, ISSN 1751-8695, Bd. 10 (2016), 9, S. 2138-2146

http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-gtd.2015.1175
Waczowicz, Simon; Reischl, Markus; Klaiber, Stefan; Bretschneider, Peter; Konotop, Irina; Westermann, Dirk; Hagenmeyer, Veit; Mikut, Ralf
Virtual storages as theoretically motivated demand response models for enhanced smart grid operations. - In: Energy technology, ISSN 2194-4296, Bd. 4 (2016), 1, S. 163-176

http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ente.2015003184201
Boie, Inga; Kost, Christoph; Bohn, Sven; Agsten, Michael; Bretschneider, Peter; Snigovyi, Oleksandr; Pudlik, Martin; Ragwitz, Mario; Schlegl, Thomas; Westermann, Dirk
Opportunities and challenges of high renewable energy deployment and electricity exchange for North Africa and Europe - scenarios for power sector and transmission infrastructure in 2030 and 2050. - In: Renewable energy, ISSN 1879-0682, Bd. 87 (2016), Part 1, Seite 130-144

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.10.008
Weigand, Moritz; Agsten, Michael; Beyer, Daniel; Bohn, Sven; Bretschneider, Peter
Einfluss künftiger Elektromobilität auf städtische Verteilernetze. - In: Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen, ISSN 0013-743X, Bd. 65 (2015), 3, S. 70-73

Kummerow, André; Klaiber, Stefan; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Recursive analysis and forecast of superimposed generation and load time series. - In: Proceedings of International ETG Congress 2015, ISBN 978-3-8007-4121-2, (2015), S. 198-203

The scope of this survey is the forecast of mixed power time series characterized by the superimposition of various generation and load components. This can support planning tasks for operational management in grid systems with high proportion of renewable energies. For this study real measured data of several time series as well as measured and forecasted values of weather and PV feed-in data are used. Within the forecast process the number of signal components is stepwise reduced by repetitive analysis and model construction. By that a component-wise modelling is pursued. Different model variations are compared and first results are shown.



https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7388481
Waczowicz, Simo; Reischl, Markus; Hagenmeyer, Veit; Mikut, Ralf; Klaiber, Stefan; Bretschneider, Peter; Konotop, Irina; Westermann, Dirk
Demand response clustering - how do dynamic prices affect household electricity consumption?. - In: 2015 IEEE Eindhoven PowerTech, (2015), insges. 6 S.

https://doi.org/10.1109/PTC.2015.7232493
Klaiber, Stefan; Bretschneider, Peter; Waczowicz, Simon; Mikut, Ralf; Konotop, Irina; Westermann, Dirk
A contribution to the load forecast of price elastic consumption behaviour. - In: 2015 IEEE Eindhoven PowerTech, (2015), insges. 6 S.

https://doi.org/10.1109/PTC.2015.7232548
Fischer, Benjamin; Karstädt, Frank; Beyer, Daniel; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Redox-Flow-Batterie als Stellglied für regelungstechnische Aufgabenstellungen im elektrischen Niederspannungsnetz. - In: Automation 2014, (2014), S. 1239-1250

Ritter, Sabine; Naumann, Steffi; Klaiber, Stefan; Warweg, Oliver; Bretschneider, Peter
Influence of accuracy in energy system modeling to profitability analysis of pumped-storage power plants. - In: 2014 11th International Conference on the European Energy Market (EEM), ISBN 978-1-4799-6095-8, (2014), insges. 5 S.

In this paper, a fundamental optimization model containing the German generation and energy storage system has been used to analyze the profitability of pumped-storage power plants within the German energy market. As a result of the optimization, energy prices are calculated based on the power plants' marginal costs according to the merit order principle. This paper demonstrates the influence of increasing model accuracy in the underlying optimization model on the optimization results, particularly regarding the profitability of pumped-storage power plants.



https://doi.org/10.1109/EEM.2014.6861287
Boie, Inga; Pudlik, Martin; Ragwitz, Mario; Sensfuß, Frank; Bohn, Sven; Agsten, Michael; Bretschneider, Peter; Westermann, Dirk
Scenarios for renewable energy deployment in North African countries and electricity exchange with Europe - a modelbased analysis for 2050. - In: International Journal of Smart Grid and Clean Energy, ISSN 2315-4462, Bd. 3 (2014), 3, S. 299-306

http://dx.doi.org/10.12720/sgce.3.3.299-306
Waczowicz, Simon; Klaiber, Stefan; Bretschneider, Peter; Konotop, Irina; Westermann, Dirk; Reischl, Markus; Mikut, Ralf
Data mining to analyse the effects of price signals on household electricity customers :
Data Mining zur Analyse der Auswirkungen von Preissignalen auf Haushaltsstromkunden. - In: Automatisierungstechnik, ISSN 2196-677X, Bd. 62 (2014), 10, S. 740-752

http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/auto-2014-1108
Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter; Westermann, Dirk
Hierarchische Speichereinsatzoptimierung : mit einem Realisierungsbeispiel auf der Insel Pellworm. - In: Automatisierungstechnik, ISSN 2196-677X, Bd. 62 (2014), 5, S. 364-374

https://doi.org/10.1515/auto-2013-1076
Klaiber, Stefan; Warweg, Oliver; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Evaluation of energy storages for the optimization of wind energy integration based upon different forecast errors scenarios. - In: Proceedings, 12th Wind Integration Workshop, International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, 22 - 24 October 2013, London, UK, (2013), S. 371-376

Beyer, Daniel; Fischer, Benjamin; Karstädt, Frank; Arnoldt, Alexander; Agsten, Michael; Bretschneider, Peter
Analyse des regional und zeitlich aufgelösten Energieausgleichsbedarfs in Deutschland zur Kompensation volatiler Energieerzeugung unter Berücksichtigung der Leitungsbelastung im Übertragungsnetz. - In: Internationaler ETG-Kongress 2013, (2013), insges. 7 S.

Waczowicz, Simon; Klaiber, Stefan; Bretschneider, Peter; Konotop, Irina; Westermann, Dirk; Mikut, Ralf
Virtuelle Speicher als adaptierbare Verbrauchermodelle zur Lastprognose und Betriebsführung in Verteilnetzen. - In: Proceedings, (2013), S. 109-128

http://dx.doi.org/10.5445/KSP/1000036887
Klaiber, Stefan; Bretschneider, Peter; Waczowicz, Simon; Mikut, Ralf; Konotop, Irina; Westermann, Dirk
Intelligente Prognoseverfahren für beeinflusstes Verbrauchsverhalten in Energiesystemen. - In: Proceedings, (2013), S. 93-107

http://dx.doi.org/10.5445/KSP/1000036887
Bohn, Sven; Agsten, Michael; Waldhorst, Oliver; Mitschele-Thiel, Andreas; Westermann, Dirk; Bretschneider, Peter
An ICT architecture for managed charging of electric vehicles in smart grid environments. - In: Journal of Engineering, ISSN 2314-4912, 2013, Article ID 989421, insges. 11 S.

https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/989421
Illing, Björn; Bretschneider, Peter; Westermann, Dirk
Flat-rate pricing for grid usage in distribution grids. - In: 10th International Conference on the European Energy Market (EEM), 2013, ISBN 978-1-4799-2008-2, (2013), insges. 6 S.

https://doi.org/10.1109/EEM.2013.6607372
Warweg, Oliver; Ifland, Mike; Käßler, Martin; Bretschneider, Peter
Stand der Smart Metering-Technologie. - In: Smart Metering, (2013), S. 61-78
Parallel als Druckausg. erschienen

https://www.db-thueringen.de/receive/dbt_mods_00021399
Westermann, Dirk; Döring, Nicola; Bretschneider, Peter
Smart Metering : zwischen technischer Herausforderung und gesellschaftlicher Akzeptanz - interdisziplinärer Status Quo
[Online-Ausg.]. - Ilmenau : Universitätsverlag Ilmenau, 2013. - Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 237 S., 7,27 MB). - (Ilmenauer Beiträge zur elektrischen Energiesystem-, Geräte- und Anlagentechnik ; 5)Parallel als Druckausg. erschienen

Die Energiewende, also die Umstellung der elektrischen Energieversorgung auf überwiegend regenerative Energieerzeugungsanlagen, erfordert grundsätzliche und umfangreiche Änderungen im Versorgungssystem. Ein Baustein stellt die aktive Involvierung der privaten Endverbraucher dar, die mittels Smart-Metering-Technologie eine neue Schnittstelle zum Versorgungssystem erhalten. Das Forschungsprojekt RESIDENS (effizienteRe Energienutzung durch Systemtechnische Integration Des privaten ENdabnehmerS) ist eine Kooperation zwischen Ingenieuren und Sozialwissenschaftlern aus Ilmenau und Jena und untersucht die Potentiale von Smart Metering aus Netz- und Kundenperspektive. In dieser Publikation werden die technischen, juristischen und sozialwissenschaftlichen Ergebnisse des Projekts, als auch praktische Erfahrungen, die mit der Anwendung der Technik im Zusammenhang stehen, erläutert.



https://www.db-thueringen.de/receive/dbt_mods_00021399
Bullinger, Hans-Jörg; Dötsch, Christian; Bretschneider, Peter
Smart grids - the answer to the new challenges of energy logistics?. - In: CESifo DICE report, ISSN 1613-6373, Bd. 10 (2012), 3, S. 29-35

https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/167084
Nicolai, Steffen; Ritter, Sabine; Beyer, Daniel; Bretschneider, Peter
A hierarchical management approach for electrical energy storages in distribution grids. - In: IEEE Power and Energy Society general meeting, 2012, ISBN 978-1-4673-2727-5, (2012), S. 1-8

In this paper an approach for optimal management of electrical energy storages in distribution grid with high share of renewable energies is presented. Within this approach a multi stage combination of a Storage Scheduling as a long term optimization and a Storage Dispatch as the short term consideration is applied. For this a reference distribution grid with realistic low voltage level structures is applied. The modeling of this reference grid is presented for several levels of the management approach. By means of currently assumed development data for energy generation from renewable fluctuating sources scenarios for the reference distribution grid are developed and the presented approach is investigated in numerical case studies. In conclusion, results of the model calculations are analyzed.



https://doi.org/10.1109/PESGM.2012.6345308
Beyer, Daniel; Karstädt, Frank; Fischer, Benjamin; Agsten, Michael; Bretschneider, Peter
Electrical power and energy compensation demand with regard to topological restrictions of German mains for an efficient operation of smart grids. - In: 3rd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), 2012, ISBN 978-1-4673-2595-0, (2012), S. 1-8

This paper introduces two newly developed gird models, which are topological orientated and make it capable to study the impact of decentraliced volatile energy generation on the German transmission and distribution grid. With these models it is possible to determine the electrical power and energy compensation demand of the German mains for different energy studies and at the same time investigations regarding to the topological restrictions of the electrical grid and the primary operating resources can be made. The methodical procedure of creating the German electrical transmission and distribution grid models is presented and the database is described. A case studie, for an exemplary region in Germany with the two topological orientated grid models, is performed for different time horizons of an energy lead scenario and shows the electrical power and energy compensation demand, as well as it is showing the restrictions of the grid and the operating resources. It is made clear that the developed models and approaches can be used for deriving optimal locations for energy storages and also to determine the dimensioning of these storages. Furthermore the developing and validation of smart energy management systems can be enhanced by integrating and simulating within the proposed models.



https://doi.org/10.1109/ISGTEurope.2012.6465660
Illing, Björn; Bretschneider, Peter
Flat-rate pricing for grid usage in distribution grids. - In: 2012 International Conference on Smart Grid Technology, Economics and Policies (SG-TEP), (2012), S. 1-4

The increasing change of the electrical power system caused by the influence of renewable energy on the power flow in the distribution grid mainly affects the distribution system operators. They have to cope with the changed power flow as well as to account for congestions. Therefore they have to take influence on these power flows. One opportunity is represented by variable grid fees which enable a causation-based allocation of grid costs and a higher predictability concerning power system planning. According to the development of pricing in the communication sector flat-rate pricing for grid usage seems to be an appropriate solution. Therefore an approach based on a flatrate tariff with an additional usage-sensitive component is developed.



https://doi.org/10.1109/SG-TEP.2012.6642367
Illing, Björn; Bretschneider, Peter; Westermann, Dirk
Causation-based approaches of calculating distribution grid fees to integrate renewable energy. - In: International Conference on Electronics, Information and Communication Engineering, (2012), S. 175-178

https://doi.org/10.1115/1.859971.paper32
Petsch, Mathias; Nissen, Volker; Termer, Frank; Flachsenberger, Iris; Schorcht, Hagen; Warweg, Oliver; Werner, Markus; Bretschneider, Peter
Der Einfluss von Smart Metern auf die Geschäftsprozesse kommunaler Energieversorger. - Ilmenau : Techn. Univ., Inst. für Wirtschaftsinformatik. - Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: III, 18 S., 866 KB). - (Ilmenauer Beiträge zur Wirtschaftsinformatik ; 2012,2) ISBN 978-3-938940-43-3
Publ. entstand im Rahmen der Veranst.: Informatik 2012 : 42. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. (GI), 16. bis 21.9.2012, TU Braunschweig

http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:gbv:ilm1-2012200300
Warweg, Oliver; Bretschneider, Peter; Schmelzer, Knut; Ifland, Mike; Westermann, Dirk
Auswirkungen zeitvariabler Stromtarife in der Bilanzkreisabrechnung von Haushaltskunden. - In: Smart Grid, (2012), insges. 6 S.

Arnoldt, Alexander; Bretschneider, Peter
Input model identifying techniques for 48h local wind power forecast. - In: Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy Systems and Applications, (2011), S. 267-274

Warweg, Oliver; Schaller, Falk; Ritter, Sabine; Bretschneider, Peter
Technical and regulatory challenges for the integration of electric vehicles into the energy system. - In: 2nd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), 2011, ISBN 978-1-4577-1422-1, (2011), S. 1-8

In this contribution the technical and regulatory challenges for the integration of electric vehicles into the energy system are identified. An investigation on the impact of electric vehicles for the medium voltage and subsequently for the low voltage distribution grid is realized. Therefore a benchmark distribution grid is designed based on existing benchmarks for medium voltage grids. As a result of the following simulation it is necessary to establish a charging management for electric vehicles for a secure integration. After the technical conditions the regulatory framework is considered to analyze whether a charging management operated by the grid operator can be established and how electric vehicles should be integrated into the current role model. Finally an optimization for a charging management operated by an energy retailer under consideration of grid parameters is analyzed.



https://doi.org/10.1109/ISGTEurope.2011.6162657
Nicolai, Steffen; Ritter, Sabine; Beyer, Daniel; Bretschneider, Peter
Optimal management of electrical energy storages for the integration of decentralized fluctuating generation in distribution grids. - In: 2nd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), 2011, ISBN 978-1-4577-1422-1, (2011), S. 1-8

In this paper an approach for optimal management of electrical energy storages in distribution grids is presented. Thereby, the challenge for distribution grids caused by increasing share of decentralized generation with fluctuating feeding character is especially taken into consideration. A hierarchical approach for operational management of energy storages is presented. For this a reference distribution grid with realistic low voltage level structures is applied. The modeling of this reference grid is presented for the several levels of the management approach. By means of currently assumed development data for energy generation from renewable fluctuating sources scenarios for the reference distribution grid are developed and the presented approach is investigated in numerical case studies. In conclusion, the results of the model calculations are analyzed.



https://doi.org/10.1109/ISGTEurope.2011.6162729
Schmid, Stefan; Schaarschmidt, Lars; Bretschneider, Peter
Pumpspeicherkataster Thüringen : Ergebnisse einer Potenzialanalyse
[Online-Ausg.]. - [Erfurt], 2011. - Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 33 S., 7,41 MB)
http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:gbv:27-20120504-135646-3
Illing, Björn; Bretschneider, Peter; Westermann, Dirk
Berechnungsansatz für variable Netznutzungsentgelte zum Einfluss auf den Lastverlauf in der Verteilernetzebene. - In: Internationaler ETG-Kongress 2011, 2011, P39, insges. 8 S.

Ritter, Sabine; Rüttinger, Hannes; Ritter, Sebastian; Bretschneider, Peter; Westermann, Dirk
New approaches for smart grid requirements: grid protection and optimization of distribution grid operation. - In: IEEE Power and Energy Society general meeting, 2011, ISBN 978-1-4577-1001-8, (2011), S. 1-7

https://doi.org/10.1109/PES.2011.6038930
Arnoldt, Alexander; König, Stefan; Mikut, Ralf; Bretschneider, Peter
Einsatz von Data-Mining-Verfahren zur Einspeisungsprognose für Windenergieanlagen. - In: Automation 2010, (2010), S. 99-102

Arnoldt, Alexander; König, Stefan; Mikut, Ralf; Bretschneider, Peter
Application of data mining methods for power forecast of wind power plants. - In: Proceedings, 9th International Workshop on the Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, (2010), insges. 6 S.

Westermann, Dirk; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter; Schlegel, Steffen
Mid size energy storages in distribution networks - optimal sizing and management. - In: 16th Power Systems Computation Conference 2008, (2010), S. 979-985

Mattern, Christopher; Bretschneider, Peter
Predicting pattern-based time series using models derived from statistical data compression. - In: Crossing borders within the ABC, (2010), S. 167-172

https://www.db-thueringen.de/receive/dbt_mods_00016930
Ritter, Sabine; Bretschneider, Peter
Stochastic optimization of power supply processes in liberalized energy markets. - In: Crossing borders within the ABC, (2010), S. 156-161

https://www.db-thueringen.de/receive/dbt_mods_00016928
Klaiber, Stefan; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Acquisition of grid losses using intelligent forecast methods. - In: Crossing borders within the ABC, (2010), S. 150-155

https://www.db-thueringen.de/receive/dbt_mods_00016926
Ritter, Sebastian; Ritter, Sabine; Rüttinger, Hannes; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Optimal planning and operation of power supply in liberalized energy markets. - In: Crossing borders within the ABC, (2010), S. 144-149

https://www.db-thueringen.de/receive/dbt_mods_00016925
Rüttinger, Hannes; Bretschneider, Peter
IuK-Energie-Labor - Forschungs- und Entwicklungslabor für elektrische Energiesysteme der nächsten Generation. - In: Automation 2009, (2009), S. 51-54

Bretschneider, Peter;
Lineare und nichtlineare Vorhersageverfahren für den Strom- und Gasbedarf. - In: Automation 2009, (2009), S. 45-49

Bretschneider, Peter; Ament, Christoph
Methoden zur optimalen Betriebsführung elektrischer Energiesysteme mit dezentralen fluktuierenden Erzeugern. - In: Programm [und] Kurzfassungen, (2009), S. 60-61

Westermann, Dirk; Bretschneider, Peter; Rüttinger, Hannes
A novel approach for distribution system operation utilization state of the art communication technology. - In: PES '09, ISBN 978-1-4244-4240-9, (2009), insges. 6 S.

https://doi.org/10.1109/PES.2009.5275771
Rüttinger, Hannes; Bretschneider, Peter; Westermann, Dirk
IuK-Energie-Labor - Forschungs- und Entwicklungslabor für elektrische Energiesysteme der nächsten Generation. - In: Intelligente Netze, (2009), S. 281

Rüttinger, Hannes; Bretschneider, Peter; Westermann, Dirk
Intelligente Verteilnetze. - In: Intelligente Netze, (2009), S. 89

Westermann, Dirk; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Energy management for distribution networks with storage systems - a hierarchical approach. - In: Conversion and delivery of electrical energy in the 21st century, ISBN 978-1-4244-1905-0, (2008), S. 1-6

https://doi.org/10.1109/PES.2008.4596533
Ritter, Sebastian; Bretschneider, Peter
Optimale Planung und Betriebsführung im liberalisierten Energiemarkt. - In: Proceedings, (2007), S. 260-267

http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0072-70086
Fischer, Benjamin; Schaller, Falk; Yang, Shangdan; Nicolai, Steffen; Bretschneider, Peter
Testbed for interaction analysis of energy systems and components in the low voltage domain :
Prüfstand zur Wechselwirkungsanalyse von Anlagen und Komponenten im Niederspannungsbereich. - In: International ETG Congress 2017, (2017), S. 387-392

Garcia, Elmar; Bretschneider, Peter; Rauschenbach, Thomas
Vergleich nichtlinearer Vorhersagemodelle anhand von Referenzbeispielen. - In: Proceedings, (2006), S. 77-89

https://dx.doi.org/10.5445/KSP/1000005189
Bretschneider, Peter; Wernstedt, Jürgen;
Anforderungen und Entwurf von Managementsystemen für die deregulierte Energiewirtschaft. - In: Session 4-10, (2004), S. 79-84

Bretschneider, Peter; Rauschenbach, Thomas
Ein Beitrag zur Vorhersage nichtlinearer stochastischer Signale. - In: Automatisierungstechnik, ISSN 2196-677X, Bd. 50 (2002), 7, S. 334-345

https://doi.org/10.1524/auto.2002.50.7.334
Bretschneider, Peter;
Ein Beitrag zur Vorhersage musterbasierter nichtlinearer stochastischer Signale. - Ilmenau : ISLE, 2002. - XVI, 129 S.. - (Automatisierungstechnik) : Zugl.: Ilmenau, Techn. Univ., Diss., 2002
ISBN 3-932633-72-5

Wernstedt, Jürgen; Eidt, Stephan; Bretschneider, Peter
SAT-PROPHET - Energiemanagementsystem für den liberalisierten Markt. - In: Jahresbericht, Bd. 2000 (2001), S. 60-61

Bretschneider, Peter; Eidt, Stephan
PROPHET HMS : Handelsmanagementsystem für den deregulierten Strommarkt. - In: Jahresbericht, Bd. 1999 (2000), S. 72-73

Rauschenbach, Thomas; Bretschneider, Peter
Pattern based forecast for load curves : method and experiences. - In: Intelligent forecasting systems for refineries and power systems, (2000), S. 65-69

Bretschneider, Peter; Wernstedt, Jürgen
Musterbasierte Vorhersagestrategien für Energiebedarf - Methoden und Praxiserfahrungen. - In: 45. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium, (2000), S. 141-146

Bretschneider, Peter; Rauschenbach, Thomas; Wernstedt, Jürgen
Forecast strategy using an adaptive fuzzy classification algorithm for load. - In: European Control Conference ECC '99, (1999), Paper F1069-1, 4 Seiten

Bretschneider, Peter; Eidt, Stephan
Energiemanagementsystem PROPHET - Stromhandel im liberalisierten Energiemarkt. - In: Jahresbericht, Bd. 1998 (1998), S. 46-47

Bretschneider, Peter; Rauschenbach, Thomas; Wernstedt, Jürgen
Hybrid forecast strategy using an adaptive fuzzy classification algorithm. - In: Proceedings, (1998), S. 1916-1919

Bretschneider, Peter; Pfützenreuter, Torsten; Rauschenbach, Thomas; Wernstedt, Jürgen
DIMOVOR-Expert - ein modulares System zur Lösung von Diagnose-, Monitoring- und Vorhersageaufgaben. - In: [Vortragsreihen, (1997), S. 429-434

Rauschenbach, Thomas; Bretschneider, Peter; Wernstedt, Jürgen
Vorhersagestrategien unter Verwendung von musterbasierten Methoden. - In: [Vortragsreihen, (1997), S. 406-411

Bretschneider, Peter; Kuhn, Thomas; Wernstedt, Jürgen; Tiedt, H.
Prognosebasierte Online Einsatzplanung von Kraft-Wärmekopplungsanlagen mittels hierarchischer Optimierung. - In: Optimierung in der Energieversorgung II, (1997), S. 27-38