Publikationsliste des FG Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik

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Heiniger-Schell, Juliana; Bharuth-Ram, Krish; Naicker, Kimara; Masondo, Vusumuzi; Dang, Thien Thanh; Escobar Castillo, Marianela; Díaz-Guerra, Carlos; Marschick, Georg; Masenda, Hilary; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur P.; Qi, Bingcui; Unzueta, Iraultza; Ólafsson, Sveinn; Adhikari, Rajdeep; Peters, Gerrard; Naidoo, Deena; Schaaf, Peter; Zyabkin, Dmitry; Johnston, Karl; Becker, Sven; Jakob, Gerhard
Temperature dependence of the hyperfine magnetic field at Fe sites in Ba-doped BiFeO3 thin films studied by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy. - In: Crystals, ISSN 2073-4352, Bd. 13 (2023), 5, 724, S. 1-13

Emission 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy (eMS), following the implantation of radioactive 57Mn+ ions, has been used to study the temperature dependence of the hyperfine magnetic field at Fe sites in Ba-doped BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films. 57Mn β decays (t1/2 = 90 s) to the 14.4 keV Mössbauer state of 57Fe, thus allowing online eMS measurements at a selection of sample temperatures during Mn implantation. The eMS measurements were performed on two thin film BFO samples, 88 nm and 300 nm thick, and doped to 15% with Ba ions. The samples were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO3 substrates. X-ray diffraction analyses of the samples showed that the films grew in a tetragonal distorted structure. The Mössbauer spectra of the two films, measured at absorber temperatures in the range 301 K-700 K, comprised a central pair of paramagnetic doublets and a magnetic sextet feature in the wings. The magnetic component was resolved into (i) a component attributed to hyperfine interactions at Fe3+ ions located in octahedral sites (Bhf); and (ii) to Fe3+ ions in implantation induced lattice defects, which were characterized by a distribution of the magnetic field BDistr. The hyperfine magnetic field at the Fe probes in the octahedral site has a room temperature value of Bhf = 44.5(9) T. At higher sample temperatures, the Bhf becomes much weaker, with the Fe3+ hyperfine magnetic contribution disappearing above 700 K. Simultaneous analysis of the Ba-BFO eMS spectra shows that the variation of the hyperfine field with temperature follows the Brillouin curve for S = 5/2.
Li, Feitao; Flock, Dominik; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter
Solid-state dewetting of Ag/Ni bi-layers: accelerated void formation by the stress gradient in the bottom Ni layer. - In: Journal of alloys and compounds, Bd. 960 (2023), 170735

Solid-state dewetting (SSD) of the immiscible Ag/Ni bi-layers was studied. After annealing at 400 ˚C for 1 min, the Ag film was dewetted on the Ni film, and this is the first observation about the SSD of one metal film on another metal film. The easier dewetting of Ag than Ni was attributed to its lower melting point, faster grain boundary self-diffusion and poor wettability between them. At 500 ˚C, the void formation in the bottom Ni layer was highlighted and compared to Ni single layer: many voids in the former while no visible voids in the latter, indicating that the presence of Ag accelerated the SSD of Ni. It was attributed to the vertical stress gradient in the bottom Ni film of Ag/Ni bi-layers, which accelerated the Ni diffusion and formation of the voids in the underlying Ni film around and below the Ag particles. Besides, voids were more easily formed below the Ag particles than between them due to the large lattice mismatch at the Ag/Ni interface and the possible formation of Ag-Ni alloys. The destabilization of the Ag on the Ni film contributes to the understanding of dewetting kinetics, which is beneficial to realize the controllable nanofabrication.
Mathew, Sobin; Reiprich, Johannes; Narasimha, Shilpashree; Abedin, Saadman; Kurtash, Vladislav; Thiele, Sebastian; Hähnlein, Bernd; Scheler, Theresa; Flock, Dominik; Jacobs, Heiko O.; Pezoldt, Jörg
Three-dimensional MoS2 nanosheet structures: CVD synthesis, characterization, and electrical properties. - In: Crystals, ISSN 2073-4352, Bd. 13 (2023), 3, 448, S. 1-14

The proposed study demonstrates a single-step CVD method for synthesizing three-dimensional vertical MoS2 nanosheets. The postulated synthesizing approach employs a temperature ramp with a continuous N2 gas flow during the deposition process. The distinctive signals of MoS2 were revealed via Raman spectroscopy study, and the substantial frequency difference in the characteristic signals supported the bulk nature of the synthesized material. Additionally, XRD measurements sustained the material’s crystallinity and its 2H-MoS2 nature. The FIB cross-sectional analysis provided information on the origin and evolution of the vertical MoS2 structures and their growth mechanisms. The strain energy produced by the compression between MoS2 islands is assumed to primarily drive the formation of vertical MoS2 nanosheets. In addition, vertical MoS2 structures that emerge from micro fissures (cracks) on individual MoS2 islands were observed and examined. For the evaluation of electrical properties, field-effect transistor structures were fabricated on the synthesized material employing standard semiconductor technology. The lateral back-gated field-effect transistors fabricated on the synthesized material showed an n-type behavior with field-effect mobility of 1.46 cm2 V^-1 s^-1 and an estimated carrier concentration of 4.5 × 10^12 cm^-2. Furthermore, the effects of a back-gate voltage bias and channel dimensions on the hysteresis effect of FET devices were investigated and quantified.
Li, Feitao; Wan, Siyao; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter
Formation of nanoflowers: Au and Ni silicide cores surrounded by SiOx branches. - In: Beilstein journal of nanotechnology, ISSN 2190-4286, Bd. 14 (2023), 1, S. 133-140

This work reports the formation of nanoflowers after annealing of Au/Ni bilayers deposited on SiO2/Si substrates. The cores of the nanoflowers consist of segregated Ni silicide and Au parts and are surrounded by SiOx branches. The SiO2 decomposition is activated at 1050 ˚C in a reducing atmosphere, and it can be enhanced more by Au compared to Ni. SiO gas from the decomposition of SiO2 and the active oxidation of Si is the source of Si for the growth of the SiOx branches of the nanoflowers. The concentration of SiO gas around the decomposition cavities is inhomogeneously distributed. Closer to the cavity border, the concentration of the Si sources is higher, and SiOx branches grow faster. Hence, nanoflowers present shorter and shorter branches as they are getting away from the border. However, such inhomogeneous SiO gas concentration is weakened in the sample with the highest Au concentration due to the strong ability of Au to enhance SiO2 decomposition, and nanoflowers with less difference in their branches can be observed across the whole sample.
Grunert, Malte; Bohm, Sebastian; Honig, Hauke; Wang, Dong; Lienau, Christoph; Runge, Erich; Schaaf, Peter
Structural and optical properties of gold nanosponges revealed via 3D nano-reconstruction and phase-field models. - In: Communications materials, ISSN 2662-4443, Bd. 4 (2023), 1, 20, S. 1-13

Nanosponges are subject of intensive research due to their unique morphology, which leads among other effects to electrodynamic field localization generating a strongly nonlinear optical response at hot spots and thus enable a variety of applications. Accurate predictions of physical properties require detailed knowledge of the sponges’ chaotic nanometer-sized structure, posing a metrological challenge. A major goal is to obtain computer models with equivalent structural and optical properties. Here, to understand the sponges’ morphology, we present a procedure for their accurate 3D reconstruction using focused ion beam tomography. Additionally, we introduce a simulation method to create nanoporous sponge models with adjustable geometric properties. It is shown that if certain morphological parameters are similar for computer-generated and experimental sponges, their optical response, including magnitudes and hot spot locations, are also similar. Finally, we analyze the anisotropy of experimental sponges and present an easy-to-use method to reproduce arbitrary anisotropies in computer-generated sponges.
Cheng, Pengfei; Wang, Dong
Easily repairable and high-performance carbon nanostructure absorber for solar photothermoelectric conversion and photothermal water evaporation. - In: ACS applied materials & interfaces, ISSN 1944-8252, Bd. 15 (2023), 6, S. 8761-8769

Carbon materials are a category of broadband solar energy harvesting materials that can convert solar energy into heat under irradiation, which can be used for photothermal water evaporation and photothermoelectric power generation. However, destruction of the carbon nanostructure during usage will significantly decrease the light-trapping performance and, thus, limit their practical applications. In this article, an easily repairable carbon nanostructure absorber with full-solar-spectrum absorption and a hierarchically porous structure is prepared. The carbon absorber shows a superhigh light absorption of above 97% across the whole solar spectrum because of multiple scatterings within the carbon nanostructure and photon interaction with the carbon nanoparticles. The excellent light absorption performance directly leads to a good photothermal effect. As a consequence, the carbon absorber integrated with a thermoelectric module can obtain a large power (133.3 μW cm-2) output under 1 sun. In addition, the carbon absorber combined with the sponge can achieve a high photothermal water evaporation efficiency of 83.6% under 1 sun. Its high-efficiency solar-to-electricity and photothermal water evaporation capabilities demonstrate that the carbon absorber with superhigh absorption, simple fabrication, and facile repairability shows great potential for practical fresh water production and electric power generation.
Sauni Camposano, Yesenia H.; Bartsch, Heike; Matthes, Sebastian; Oliva Ramírez, Manuel; Jaekel, Konrad; Schaaf, Peter
Microstructural characterization and self-propagation properties of reactive Al/Ni multilayers deposited onto wavelike surface morphologies: influence on the propagation front velocity. - In: Physica status solidi, ISSN 1862-6319, Bd. 220 (2023), 7, 2200765, S. 1-10

Reactive multilayer systems are nanostructures of great interest for various technological applications because of their high energy release rate during the self-propagating reaction of their components. Therefore, many efforts are aimed at controlling the propagation velocity of these reactions. Herein, reactive multilayer systems of Al/Ni in the shape of free-standing foils with a wavelike surface morphology prepared by using sacrificial substrates with well-aligned waves are presented and the propagation of the reaction along different directions of the reproduced waves is analyzed. During the ignition test, the propagation front is recorded with a high-speed camera, and the maximum temperature is measured using a pyrometer. The propagation of the reaction is favored in the direction of the waves, which points out the influence of the anisotropy generated by this morphology and how it affects the propagation dynamics and the resulting microstructure. Furthermore, compared to their counterparts fabricated on flat substrates, these reactive multilayers with wavelike morphology exhibit a remarkable reduction in the propagation velocity of the reaction of about 50%, without significantly affecting the maximum temperature registered during the reaction.
Wang, Honglei; Jiao, Yunfei; Wu, Bing; Wang, Dong; Hu, Yueqi; Liang, Fei; Shen, Chen; Knauer, Andrea; Ren, Dan; Wang, Hongguang; Aken, Peter Antonie van; Zhang, Hongbin; Sofer, Zdenek; Grätzel, Michael; Schaaf, Peter
Exfoliated 2D layered and nonlayered metal phosphorous trichalcogenides nanosheets as promising electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction. - In: Angewandte Chemie, ISSN 1521-3773, Bd. 62 (2023), 17, e202217253, S. 1-8

Two-dimensional (2D) materials catalysts provide an atomic-scale view on a fascinating arena for understanding the mechanism of electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction (CO2 ECR). Here, we successfully exfoliated both layered and nonlayered ultra-thin metal phosphorous trichalcogenides (MPCh3) nanosheets via wet grinding exfoliation (WGE), and systematically investigated the mechanism of MPCh3 as catalysts for CO2 ECR. Unlike the layered CoPS3 and NiPS3 nanosheets, the active Sn atoms tend to be exposed on the surfaces of nonlayered SnPS3 nanosheets. Correspondingly, the nonlayered SnPS3 nanosheets exhibit clearly improved catalytic activity, showing formic acid selectivity up to 31.6 % with -7.51 mA cm^-2 at -0.65 V vs. RHE. The enhanced catalytic performance can be attributed to the formation of HCOO* via the first proton-electron pair addition on the SnPS3 surface. These results provide a new avenue to understand the novel CO2 ECR mechanism of Sn-based and MPCh3-based catalysts.
Tan, Xinu; Liu, Yushun; Li, Feitao; Qiu, Risheng; Liu, Qing
Formation of nanocrystalline γ-ZrH in Zr-Nb alloy: crystal structure and twinning. - In: Micron, ISSN 1878-4291, Bd. 167 (2023), 103414

In the present work, the lattice parameter and the twins of γ-ZrH hydride in Zr-2.5Nb-1Si were characterized using high resolution electron microscopy. The lattice parameters of γ-ZrH (P42/mmc, Zr2H2 unit cell) is determined to be a= 0.336nm, c=0.508nm. Twinning γ-ZrH hydride ({011}<0̅11> type) is for the first time reported in zirconium alloys, whose orientation relationship with α-Zr is [100]γ-twins // [1̅210]α and (011)γ-twins // (0002)α. The formation process of γ-ZrH twins is also discussed based on a ‘grow-in’ mechanism during the transformation from α-Zr to γ-ZrH hydride.
Hähnlein, Bernd; Honig, Hauke; Schaaf, Peter; Krischok, Stefan; Tonisch, Katja
Effect of poly-crystallinity on the magnetoelectric behavior of TiN/AlN/Ni MEMS cantilevers investigated by finite element methods. - In: Physica status solidi, ISSN 1862-6319, Bd. 0 (2023), 0, 2200839, S. 1-6

Herein, magnetoelectric microelectromechanical system (MEMS) cantilevers are investigated on basis of a TiN/AlN/Ni laminate derived from experimental sensors using finite-element simulations. With the anisotropic ΔE effect as an implication of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the lateral sensitivity of the sensor is studied for different nickel layer thicknesses and boundary conditions. It is found that above 60% of the cantilever length, the nickel is effectively not contributing to the sensor sensitivity anymore which is supported by the investigation of sensors with partial nickel coverage. The boundary condition of the magnetostrictive layer is found to affect the sensitivity of thick layers while it is negligible for thinning layers. Further investigations on basis of polycrystalline untextured nickel with slightly preferred orientations reveal a stronger effect on thin layers than on thicker ones. It is found to arise from relatively large crystals in the high-sensitivity region near the clamping of the sensor. For thicker polycrystalline layers, the ΔE effect reproduces a characteristic based mainly on the (110) and (111) orientations while the (100) orientation appears to be underrepresented.