Three soil bacterial communities from an archaeological excavation site of an ancient coal mine near Bennstedt (Germany) characterized by 16S r-RNA sequencing. - In: Environments, ISSN 2076-3298, Bd. 9 (2022), 9, 115, S. 1-19
This metagenomics investigation of three closely adjacent sampling sites from an archaeological excavation of a pre-industrial coal mining exploration shaft provides detailed information on the composition of the local soil bacterial communities. The observed significant differences between the samples, reflected in the 16S r-RNA analyses, were consistent with the archaeologically observed situation distinguishing the coal seam, the rapidly deposited bright sediment inside an exploration shaft, and the topsoil sediment. In general, the soils were characterized by a dominance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Archaea, whereas the coal seam was characterized by the highest proportion of Proteobacteria; the topsoil was characterized by very high proportions of Archaea - in particular, Nitrosotaleaceae - and Acidobacteria, mainly of Subgroup 2. Interestingly, the samples of the fast-deposited bright sediment showed a rank function of OTU abundances with disproportional values in the lower abundance range. This could be interpreted as a reflection of the rapid redeposition of soil material during the refilling of the exploration shaft in the composition of the soil bacterial community. This interpretation is supported by the observation of a comparatively high proportion of reads relating to bacteria known to be alkaliphilic in this soil material. In summary, these investigations confirm that metagenomic analyses of soil material from archaeological excavations can provide valuable information about the local soil bacterial communities and the historical human impacts on them.
Hybrid quantum-classical reservoir computing of thermal convection flow. - In: Physical review research, ISSN 2643-1564, Bd. 4 (2022), 3, S. 033176-1-033176-14
We simulate the nonlinear chaotic dynamics of Lorenz-type models for a classical two-dimensional thermal convection flow with three and eight degrees of freedom by a hybrid quantum-classical reservoir computing model. The high-dimensional quantum reservoir dynamics are established by universal quantum gates that rotate and entangle the individual qubits of the tensor product quantum state. A comparison of the quantum reservoir computing model with its classical counterpart shows that the same prediction and reconstruction capabilities of classical reservoirs with thousands of perceptrons can be obtained by a few strongly entangled qubits. We demonstrate that the mean squared error between model output and ground truth in the test phase of the quantum reservoir computing algorithm increases when the reservoir is decomposed into separable subsets of qubits. Furthermore, the quantum reservoir computing model is implemented on a real noisy IBM quantum computer for up to seven qubits. Our work thus opens the door to model the dynamics of classical complex systems in a high-dimensional phase space effectively with an algorithm that requires a small number of qubits.
Suppression of natural lens fluorescence in fundus autofluorescence measurements: review of hardware solutions. - In: Biomedical optics express, ISSN 2156-7085, Bd. 13 (2022), 10, S. 5151-5170
Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO), a technique for investigating metabolic changes in the eye ground, can reveal the first signs of diseases related to metabolism. The fluorescence of the natural lens overlies the fundus fluorescence. Although the influence of natural lens fluorescence can be somewhat decreased with mathematical models, excluding this influence during the measurement by using hardware enables more exact estimation of the fundus fluorescence. Here, we analyze four 1-photon excitation hardware solutions to suppress the influence of natural lens fluorescence: aperture stop separation, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, combined confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and aperture stop separation, and dual point confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. The effect of each principle is demonstrated in examples. The best suppression is provided by the dual point principle, realized with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. In this case, in addition to the fluorescence of the whole eye, the fluorescence of the anterior part of the eye is detected from a non-excited spot of the fundus. The intensity and time-resolved fluorescence spectral data of the fundus are derived through the subtraction of the simultaneously measured fluorescence of the excited and non-excited spots. Advantages of future 2-photon fluorescence excitation are also discussed. This study provides the first quantitative evaluation of hardware principles to suppress the fluorescence of the natural lens during measurements of fundus autofluorescence.
AVQBits-adaptive video quality model based on bitstream information for various video applications. - In: IEEE access, ISSN 2169-3536, Bd. 10 (2022), S. 80321-80351
The paper presents AVQBits, a versatile, bitstream-based video quality model. It can be applied in several contexts such as video service monitoring, evaluation of video encoding quality, of gaming video QoE, and even of omnidirectional video quality. In the paper, it is shown that AVQBits predictions closely match video quality ratings obained in various subjective tests with human viewers, for videos up to 4K-UHD resolution (Ultra-High Definition, 3840 x 2180 pixels) and framerates up 120 fps. With the different variants of AVQBits presented in the paper, video quality can be monitored either at the client side, in the network or directly after encoding. The no-reference AVQBits model was developed for different video services and types of input data, reflecting the increasing popularity of Video-on-Demand services and widespread use of HTTP-based adaptive streaming. At its core, AVQBits encompasses the standardized ITU-T P.1204.3 model, with further model instances that can either have restricted or extended input information, depending on the application context. Four different instances of AVQBits are presented, that is, a Mode 3 model with full access to the bitstream, a Mode 0 variant using only metadata such as codec type, framerate, resoution and bitrate as input, a Mode 1 model using Mode 0 information and frame-type and -size information, and a Hybrid Mode 0 model that is based on Mode 0 metadata and the decoded video pixel information. The models are trained on the authors’ own AVT-PNATS-UHD-1 dataset described in the paper. All models show a highly competitive performance by using AVT-VQDB-UHD-1 as validation dataset, e.g., with the Mode 0 variant yielding a value of 0.890 Pearson Correlation, the Mode 1 model of 0.901, the hybrid no-reference mode 0 model of 0.928 and the model with full bitstream access of 0.942. In addition, all four AVQBits variants are evaluated when applying them out-of-the-box to different media formats such as 360˚ video, high framerate (HFR) content, or gaming videos. The analysis shows that the ITU-T P.1204.3 and Hybrid Mode 0 instances of AVQBits for the considered use-cases either perform on par with or better than even state-of-the-art full reference, pixel-based models. Furthermore, it is shown that the proposed Mode 0 and Mode 1 variants outperform commonly used no-reference models for the different application scopes. Also, a long-term integration model based on the standardized ITU-T P.1203.3 is presented to estimate ratings of overall audiovisual streaming Quality of Experience (QoE) for sessions of 30 s up to 5 min duration. In the paper, the AVQBits instances with their per-1-sec score output are evaluated as the video quality component of the proposed long-term integration model. All AVQBits variants as well as the long-term integration module are made publicly available for the community for further research.
Analysis of TRWP particle distribution in urban and suburban landscapes, connecting real road measurements with particle distribution simulation. - In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, Bd. 13 (2022), 8, 1204, S. 1-17
This article deals with methods and measurements related to environmental pollution and analysis of particle distribution in urban and suburban landscapes. Therefore, an already-invented sampling method for tyre road wear particles (TRWP) was used to capture online emission factors from the road. The collected particles were analysed according to their size distribution, for use as an input for particle distribution simulations. The simulation model was a main traffic intersection, because of the high vehicle dynamic related to the high density of start-stop manoeuvres. To compare the simulation results (particle mass (PM) and particle number (PN)) with real-world emissions, measuring points were defined and analysed over a measuring time of 8 h during the day. Afterwards, the collected particles were analysed in terms of particle shape, appearance and chemical composition, to identify the distribution and their place of origin. As a result of the investigation, the appearance of the particles showed a good correlation to the vehicle dynamics, even though there were a lot of background influences, e.g., resuspension of dust. Air humidity also showed a great influence on the recorded particle measurements. In areas of high vehicle dynamics, such as heavy braking or accelerating, more tyre and brake particles could be found.
The interplay of biomimetics and biomechatronics. - In: Biomimetics, ISSN 2313-7673, Bd. 7 (2022), 3, 96, S. 1-9
Biomechatronics is an engineering subject in which biomimetics as a method is one of its two supporting pillars: biology for engineering, or Bio4Eng. This is contrasted with biocompatible design, or Eng4Bio, examples of which are human-serving systems, such as exoskeletons, and biomedical engineering. The paper aims to illustrate that the research fields of biomimetics, biomechatronics, and biomedical engineering are not in competition but mutually supportive. The current attempts to place biomechatronics under the umbrella of biomimetics or biomedical engineering are therefore not expedient; they deprive the subject of its strength of combining Bio4Eng and Eng4Bio at any time in a task-related manner. In addition to research and development, however, the training of the specialists supporting the subjects must not be disregarded and is therefore described based on a proven design.
Anisotropy of the ΔE effect in Ni-based magnetoelectric cantilevers: a finite element method analysis. - In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, Bd. 22 (2022), 13, 4958, S. 1-16
In recent investigations of magnetoelectric sensors based on microelectromechanical cantilevers made of TiN/AlN/Ni, a complex eigenfrequency behavior arising from the anisotropic ΔE effect was demonstrated. Within this work, a FEM simulation model based on this material system is presented to allow an investigation of the vibrational properties of cantilever-based sensors derived from magnetocrystalline anisotropy while avoiding other anisotropic contributions. Using the magnetocrystalline ΔE effect, a magnetic hardening of Nickel is demonstrated for the (110) as well as the (111) orientation. The sensitivity is extracted from the field-dependent eigenfrequency curves. It is found, that the transitions of the individual magnetic domain states in the magnetization process are the dominant influencing factor on the sensitivity for all crystal orientations. It is shown, that Nickel layers in the sensor aligned along the medium or hard axis yield a higher sensitivity than layers along the easy axis. The peak sensitivity was determined to 41.3 T−1 for (110) in-plane-oriented Nickel at a magnetic bias flux of 1.78 mT. The results achieved by FEM simulations are compared to the results calculated by the Euler-Bernoulli theory.
The deuteron NMR Hahn echo decay in polyethylene oxide melts. - In: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, Bd. 12 (2022), 7, S. 075219-1-075219-12
The deuteron transverse relaxation properties of polyethylene oxide melts of four different molecular weights, covering the range from the onset of entanglements to the regime of fully entangled chains, are investigated using Hahn echo decays over an extensive time interval up to ten times the effective transverse spin relaxation time. The results are compared to predictions based on the Rouse and reptation formalisms, taking into account the dynamical heterogeneity of linear polymer chains produced by the end segments. The experimental results can be described qualitatively by a combination of both models, with the contribution of reptation dynamics increasing with growing chain length. The transition is continuous, rather than being characterized by sharp regime boundaries. Up to a molecular weight of 300.000 g/mol, the predicted limit of pure reptation dynamics is not yet reached. Quantitative deviations from the predicted decays as computed by numerical procedures become observable toward the long-time limit of the Hahn echo decays and are being discussed in terms of shortcomings of the available reptation theories.
From microtiter plates to droplets - there and back again. - In: Micromachines, ISSN 2072-666X, Bd. 13 (2022), 7, 1022, S. 1-13
Droplet-based microfluidic screening techniques can benefit from interfacing established microtiter plate-based screening and sample management workflows. Interfacing tools are required both for loading preconfigured microtiter-plate (MTP)-based sample collections into droplets and for dispensing the used droplets samples back into MTPs for subsequent storage or further processing. Here, we present a collection of Digital Microfluidic Pipetting Tips (DMPTs) with integrated facilities for droplet generation and manipulation together with a robotic system for its operation. This combination serves as a bidirectional sampling interface for sample transfer from wells into droplets (w2d) and vice versa droplets into wells (d2w). The DMPT were designed to fit into 96-deep-well MTPs and prepared from glass by means of microsystems technology. The aspirated samples are converted into the channel-confined droplets’ sequences separated by an immiscible carrier medium. To comply with the demands of dose-response assays, up to three additional assay compound solutions can be added to the sample droplets. To enable different procedural assay protocols, four different DMPT variants were made. In this way, droplet series with gradually changing composition can be generated for, e.g., 2D screening purposes. The developed DMPT and their common fluidic connector are described here. To handle the opposite transfer d2w, a robotic transfer system was set up and is described briefly.
Numerical simulation of the deformation behavior of softwood tracheids for the calculation of the mechanical properties of wood-polymer composites. - In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, Bd. 14 (2022), 13, 2574, S. 1-25
From a fiber composite point of view, an elongated softwood particle is a composite consisting of several thousand tracheids, which can be described as fiber wound hollow profiles. By knowing their deformation behavior, the deformation behavior of the wood particle can be described. Therefore, a numerical approach for RVE- and FEM-based modelling of the radial and tangential compression behavior of pine wood tracheids under room climate environment is presented and validated with optical and laser-optical image analysis as well as tensile and compression tests on pine sapwood veneer strips. According to the findings, at 23 ˚C and 12% moisture content, at least 10 MPa must be applied for maximum compaction of the earlywood tracheids. The latewood tracheids can withstand at least 100 MPa compression pressure and would deform elastically at this load by about 20%. The developed model can be adapted for other wood species and climatic conditions by adjusting the mechanical properties of the base materials of the cell wall single layers (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin), the dimensions and the structure of the vessel elements, respectively.