From microtiter plates to droplets - there and back again. - In: Micromachines, ISSN 2072-666X, Bd. 13 (2022), 7, 1022, S. 1-13
Droplet-based microfluidic screening techniques can benefit from interfacing established microtiter plate-based screening and sample management workflows. Interfacing tools are required both for loading preconfigured microtiter-plate (MTP)-based sample collections into droplets and for dispensing the used droplets samples back into MTPs for subsequent storage or further processing. Here, we present a collection of Digital Microfluidic Pipetting Tips (DMPTs) with integrated facilities for droplet generation and manipulation together with a robotic system for its operation. This combination serves as a bidirectional sampling interface for sample transfer from wells into droplets (w2d) and vice versa droplets into wells (d2w). The DMPT were designed to fit into 96-deep-well MTPs and prepared from glass by means of microsystems technology. The aspirated samples are converted into the channel-confined droplets’ sequences separated by an immiscible carrier medium. To comply with the demands of dose-response assays, up to three additional assay compound solutions can be added to the sample droplets. To enable different procedural assay protocols, four different DMPT variants were made. In this way, droplet series with gradually changing composition can be generated for, e.g., 2D screening purposes. The developed DMPT and their common fluidic connector are described here. To handle the opposite transfer d2w, a robotic transfer system was set up and is described briefly.
Numerical simulation of the deformation behavior of softwood tracheids for the calculation of the mechanical properties of wood-polymer composites. - In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, Bd. 14 (2022), 13, 2574, S. 1-25
From a fiber composite point of view, an elongated softwood particle is a composite consisting of several thousand tracheids, which can be described as fiber wound hollow profiles. By knowing their deformation behavior, the deformation behavior of the wood particle can be described. Therefore, a numerical approach for RVE- and FEM-based modelling of the radial and tangential compression behavior of pine wood tracheids under room climate environment is presented and validated with optical and laser-optical image analysis as well as tensile and compression tests on pine sapwood veneer strips. According to the findings, at 23 ˚C and 12% moisture content, at least 10 MPa must be applied for maximum compaction of the earlywood tracheids. The latewood tracheids can withstand at least 100 MPa compression pressure and would deform elastically at this load by about 20%. The developed model can be adapted for other wood species and climatic conditions by adjusting the mechanical properties of the base materials of the cell wall single layers (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin), the dimensions and the structure of the vessel elements, respectively.
MatriGrid® based biological morphologies: tools for 3D cell culturing. - In: Bioengineering, ISSN 2306-5354, Bd. 9 (2022), 5, 220P1-41
Recent trends in 3D cell culturing has placed organotypic tissue models at another level. Now, not only is the microenvironment at the cynosure of this research, but rather, microscopic geometrical parameters are also decisive for mimicking a tissue model. Over the years, technologies such as micromachining, 3D printing, and hydrogels are making the foundation of this field. However, mimicking the topography of a particular tissue-relevant substrate can be achieved relatively simply with so-called template or morphology transfer techniques. Over the last 15 years, in one such research venture, we have been investigating a micro thermoforming technique as a facile tool for generating bioinspired topographies. We call them MatriGrid®s. In this research account, we summarize our learning outcome from this technique in terms of the influence of 3D micro morphologies on different cell cultures that we have tested in our laboratory. An integral part of this research is the evolution of unavoidable aspects such as possible label-free sensing and fluidic automatization. The development in the research field is also documented in this account.
SEOSS-Queries - a software engineering dataset for text-to-SQL and question answering tasks. - In: Data in Brief, ISSN 2352-3409, Bd. 42 (2022), 108211, S. 1-11
Automated analysis of acetaminophen toxicity on 3D HepaRG cell culture in microbioreactor. - In: Bioengineering, ISSN 2306-5354, Bd. 9 (2022), 5, 196, S. 1-16
Real-time monitoring of bioanalytes in organotypic cell cultivation devices is a major research challenge in establishing stand-alone diagnostic systems. Presently, no general technical facility is available that offers a plug-in system for bioanalytics in diversely available organotypic culture models. Therefore, each analytical device has to be tuned according to the microfluidic and interface environment of the 3D in vitro system. Herein, we report the design and function of a 3D automated culture and analysis device (3D-ACAD) which actively perfuses a custom-made 3D microbioreactor, samples the culture medium and simultaneously performs capillary-based flow ELISA. A microstructured MatriGrid® has been explored as a 3D scaffold for culturing HepaRG cells, with albumin investigated as a bioanalytical marker using flow ELISA. We investigated the effect of acetaminophen (APAP) on the albumin secretion of HepaRG cells over 96 h and compared this with the albumin secretion of 2D monolayer HepaRG cultures. Automated on-line monitoring of albumin secretion in the 3D in vitro mode revealed that the application of hepatotoxic drug-like APAP results in decreased albumin secretion. Furthermore, a higher sensitivity of the HepaRG cell culture in the automated 3D-ACAD system to APAP was observed compared to HepaRG cells cultivated as a monolayer. The results support the use of the 3D-ACAD model as a stand-alone device, working in real time and capable of analyzing the condition of the cell culture by measuring a functional analyte. Information obtained from our system is compared with conventional cell culture and plate ELISA, the results of which are presented herein.
Colored Petri net modelling and evaluation of drone inspection methods for distribution networks. - In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, Bd. 22 (2022), 9, 3418, S. 1-20
Comparison of the performance and reliability between improved sampling strategies for polynomial chaos expansion. - In: Mathematical biosciences and engineering, ISSN 1551-0018, Bd. 19 (2022), 8, S. 7425-7480
As uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of complex models grows ever more important, the difficulty of their timely realizations highlights a need for more efficient numerical operations. Non-intrusive Polynomial Chaos methods are highly efficient and accurate methods of mapping input-output relationships to investigate complex models. There is substantial potential to increase the efficacy of the method regarding the selected sampling scheme. We examine state-of-the-art sampling schemes categorized in space-filling-optimal designs such as Latin Hypercube sampling and L1-optimal sampling and compare their empirical performance against standard random sampling. The analysis was performed in the context of L1 minimization using the least-angle regression algorithm to fit the GPCE regression models. Due to the random nature of the sampling schemes, we compared different sampling approaches using statistical stability measures and evaluated the success rates to construct a surrogate model with relative errors of < 0.1 %, < 1 %, and < 10 %, respectively. The sampling schemes are thoroughly investigated by evaluating the y of surrogate models constructed for various distinct test cases, which represent different problem classes covering low, medium and high dimensional problems. Finally, the sampling schemes are tested on an application example to estimate the sensitivity of the self-impedance of a probe that is used to measure the impedance of biological tissues at different frequencies. We observed strong differences in the convergence properties of the methods between the analyzed test functions.
Improving the computational accuracy of the dynamic electro-geometrical model using numerical solutions. - In: Scientific reports, ISSN 2045-2322, Bd. 12 (2022), 5742, S. 1-13
The dynamic electro-geometrical model has been applied in various studies to investigate the probability of a lightning strike to parts of a structure. The numerical computation of the dynamic electro-geometrical model (DEGM) follows an iterative step by determining lightning strike points from above to a point on a structure of interest. This computation is often time-consuming and requires extensive computational resources. This study delves into the inner workings of DEGM striking distance computation. It highlights sources of computational numerical errors, such as the effect of the discretisation size. It proposes ways to eliminate such by using a conversion factor while also significantly reducing computation time from more than 14 h to approximately 6 min for a cuboid structure by eliminating ground surface points. The performance of the proposed improved DEGM (IDEGM) was investigated using a floating roof tank and a cuboid structure with a central air termination, and an interception efficiency of 61% was achieved. An alternative case using catenary wires with a total lightning interception efficiency of 99.1% was also implemented. The percentage strike probability for the cases considered shows a close approximation to published results, and this confirms the accuracy of the implemented model. The IDEGM has the benefit of generating results with a significantly reduced computation time of just a few minutes as compared to several hours in previous models.
Well-defined nanostructuring with designable anodic aluminum oxide template. - In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, Bd. 13 (2022), 2435, S. 1-11
Well-defined nanostructuring over size, shape, spatial configuration, and multi-combination is a feasible concept to reach unique properties of nanostructure arrays, while satisfying such broad and stringent requirements with conventional techniques is challenging. Here, we report designable anodic aluminium oxide templates to address this challenge by achieving well-defined pore features within templates in terms of in-plane and out-of-plane shape, size, spatial configuration, and pore combination. The structural designability of template pores arises from designing of unequal aluminium anodization rates at different anodization voltages, and further relies on a systematic blueprint guiding pore diversification. Starting from the designable templates, we realize a series of nanostructures that inherit equal structural controllability relative to their template counterparts. Proof-of-concept applications based on such nanostructures demonstrate boosted performance. In light of the broad selectivity and high controllability, designable templates will provide a useful platform for well-defined nanostructuring.
Effect of C60 fullerene on recovery of muscle soleus in rats after atrophy induced by achillotenotomy. - In: Life, ISSN 2075-1729, Bd. 12 (2022), 3, 332, S. 1-13
Biomechanical and biochemical changes in the muscle soleus of rats during imitation of hind limbs unuse were studied in the model of the Achilles tendon rupture (Achillotenotomy). Oral administration of water-soluble C60 fullerene at a dose of 1 mg/kg was used as a therapeutic agent throughout the experiment. Changes in the force of contraction and the integrated power of the muscle, the time to reach the maximum force response, the mechanics of fatigue processes development, in particular, the transition from dentate to smooth tetanus, as well as the levels of pro- and antioxidant balance in the blood of rats on days 15, 30 and 45 after injury were described. The obtained results indicate a promising prospect for C60 fullerene use as a powerful antioxidant for reducing and correcting pathological conditions of the muscular system arising from skeletal muscle atrophy.