Zeitschriftenaufsätze und Buchbeiträge (Rezensionen)

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Oertel, Erik; Manske, Eberhard
Der Einsatz von Mikrokugeln als Referenzartefakte für die in-situ-Charakterisierung von taktilen 3D-Mikrotastern entlang des Äquators der Tastkugel :
Using micro spheres as reference artifacts for the in-situ characterization of tactile 3D micro probes along the probing sphere’s equator. - In: Technisches Messen, ISSN 2196-7113, Bd. 0 (2024), 0, S. 1-11

Nano and micro coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) have been developed for the characterization of small dimensional features. They require a procedure which enables a traceable and precise characterization of probing spheres. In this contribution we explore the use of well characterized micro spheres as reference artifacts for the in-situ characterization of probing spheres along the probing sphere’s equator. The spheres are characterized using a strategy which is based on a set of tactile surface scans in conjunction with a stitching-algorithm. These micro spheres serve as a reference for the in-situ characterization of a tactile 3D micro probe on a nano measuring machine (NMM-1). Our investigations are based on a sample of eight spheres sourced from two different suppliers. Although the sample is small, we could already observe characteristics which seem to be typical for spheres of a certain type (i.e. nominal radius and material). The experiments indicate that micro spheres are a suitable reference artifact for tactile 3D micro probes. We were able to reproduce the measured mean radius of the probing sphere with a standard deviation of 31 nm using reference spheres whose nominal radius covers a range of 89 µm.

Liang, Weixiang; Ye, Zixin; Hu, Dongfang; Xu, Jinxin; Jiang, Juncheng; Fröhlich, Thomas; Ding, Jiong
Performance evaluation approach for accelerating rate calorimeters by means of Joule heat. - In: Thermochimica acta, Bd. 735 (2024), 179719, S. 1-9

Currently, the commonly used performance evaluation approach for accelerating rate calorimeters (ARCs) is based on di‑tert‑butyl peroxide (DTBP). However, DTBP is not a certified reference material that contains untraceable and inaccurate thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. To address this issue, an evaluation approach using Joule heat was proposed. The key point of this approach is the use of Joule heat to simulate the exothermic process of a chemical reaction. First, an evaluation apparatus with reaction rate feedback control was developed. Subsequently, exothermic reaction experiments using the DTBP/toluene solution were simulated. The experimental results indicated that the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters obtained using this approach align with the preset values and exhibit good repeatability. This approach is traceable and can be traced back to the International System of Units, which facilitates reliable performance evaluation of commercial ARCs.

Leineweber, Johannes; Hebenstreit, Roman; Häcker, Annika-Verena; Meyer, Christoph; Füßl, Roland; Manske, Eberhard; Theska, René
Characterization of a parallel kinematics actuated in situ reference measurement system for 5D-nano-measurement and nano-fabrication applications :
Charakterisierung eines parallelkinematisch aktuierten In-situ-Referenzmesssystems für 5D-Nanomess- und Fabrikationsanwendungen. - In: Technisches Messen, ISSN 2196-7113, Bd. 91 (2024), 2, S. 102-115

Die stetig voranschreitende Entwicklung im Bereich der Fertigung optischer und elektronischer Elemente auf Basis von Nanotechnologien führt seit Jahren zu einer steigenden Nachfrage nach hochpräzisen Nanomess- und Nanofabrikationsmaschinen (The International Roadmap For Devices And Systems, IEEE, 2020; C. Grant Willson and B. J. Roman, “The future of lithography: SEMATECH litho forum 2008,” ASC Nano , vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 1323-1328, 2008). Als technologisch besonders anspruchsvoll hat sich dabei die Fabrikation auf stark geneigten, gekrümmten, asphärischen und freigeformten Oberflächen herausgestellt (R. Schachtschneider, et al., “Interlaboratory comparison measurements of aspheres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. , vol. 29, no. 13pp, p. 055010, 2018). Aufbauend auf den zukunftsweisenden Entwicklungen der Nanopositionier- und Nanomessmaschine 1 (NMM-1) (G. Jäger, E. Manske, T. Hausotte, and J.-J. Büchner, “Nanomessmaschine zur abbefehlerfreien Koordinatenmessung,” tm - Tech. Mess. , vol. 67, nos. 7-8, pp. 319-323, 2000) und der Nanopositionier- und Nanomessmaschine 200 (NPMM-200) (E. Manske, G. Jäger, T. Hausotte, and F. Balzer, “Nanopositioning and Nanomeasuring Machine NPMM-200 - sub-nanometre resolution and highest accuracy in extended macroscopic working areas,” in Euspen’s 17th International Conference , 2017), wird an der Technischen Universität Ilmenau seit mehreren Jahren an Konzepten für NPMM mit erhöhtem Freiheitsgrad geforscht (F. Fern, “Metrologie in fünfachsigen Nanomess- und Nanopositioniermaschinen,” Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universität Ilmenau, 2020; R. Schienbein, “Grundlegende Untersuchungen zum konstruktiven Aufbau von Fünfachs-Nanopositionier- und Nanomessmaschinen,” Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universität Ilmenau, 2020). So besitzt der seit 2020 entwickelte Demonstrator NMM-5D (J. Leinweber, C. Meyer, R. Füßl, R. Theska, and E. Manske, “Ein neuartiges Konzept für 5D Nanopositionier-, Nanomess-, und Nanofabrikationsmaschinen,” tm - Tech. Mess. , vol. 37, nos. 1-10, 2022) neben dem kartesischen Verfahrbereich von 25mm × 25mm × 5mm zusätzlich ein Rotationsvermögen des Tools von 360˚ sowie ein Neigungsvermögen von 50˚. Imfolgenden Artikel wird davon ausgehend die mechanische und metrologische Charakterisierung der parallelkinematisch aktuierten Rotationserweiterung präsentiert. Hierbei konzentrieren sich durchgeführte Untersuchungen primär auf die kinematisch verursachten Abweichungen des Tool Center Point (TCP) sowie die Detektierung dieser Abweichungen mit einem interferometrischen In-situ -Referenzmesssystem. Darüber kann perspektivisch eine geregelte Kompensation der auftretenden TCP-Abweichungen erfolgen.

Sommer, Klaus-Dieter; Härtig, Frank; Heizmann, Michael; Kaiser, Ulrich
From measurement to information with intelligence - VDI future forum in Ettlingen/Germany :
Mit Intelligenz von der Messung zur Information - VDI-Zukunftsforum in Ettlingen. - In: Technisches Messen, ISSN 2196-7113, Bd. 91 (2024), 1, S. 1-3

Vasilyan, Suren; Rogge, Norbert; Preißler, Hannes; Starkloff, Michael; Schubert, Marco; Fröhlich, Thomas
Adaptation of metrology-grade ac current source in velocity mode of Planck-Balance 2: direct referencing induced voltages with ac quantum voltage standard. - In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 1361-6501, Bd. 35 (2024), 1, 015026, S. 1-11

The adaptation of developed metrology-grade ac current source (MCS) to the velocity mode of measurements of the Planck-Balance 2 as a means for generating ac mechanical oscillations is presented. The universality in operating with the MCS unit especially practical for the Planck-Balance setup for frequencies of 0.1 Hz-20 Hz (including but not limited to the negligence of a broader range of 0.01 Hz up to several hundred Hz) and for amplitudes of up to 10 mA with 16 (offset with 14)-bit effective resolution is demonstrated. MCS allows generating complex ac waveform signals as waveform synthesizers by adding to the original signal an extra five independent harmonic components, each of which with an adjustable resolution of 10 ns for phase and 16-bit for amplitude. Additionally, the MCS is supported by an external clock at 10 MHz frequency which serves also as a common reference time base for the comparison between the direct output signal of MCS, or of the induced voltage in the coil of the Planck-Balance resulting due to the applied current by MCS, with the ac quantum voltage standard at the required accuracy levels.

Oertel, Erik; Manske, Eberhard
Influence of the reference surface and AFM tip on the radius and roundness measurement of micro spheres. - In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 1361-6501, Bd. 35 (2024), 2, 025010, S. 1-16

The performance of tactile and optical surface sensors for nano and micro coordinate measuring machines is currently limited by the lack of precisely characterised micro spheres, since established strategies have mainly been developed for spheres in the range of millimetres or above. We have, therefore, recently focused our research efforts towards a novel strategy for the characterisation of spheres in the sub-millimetre range. It is based on a set of atomic force microscope (AFM) surface scans in conjunction with a stitching algorithm. To obtain an uncertainty statement, the uncertainty about the shape of the reference surface needs to be propagated via the shape of the AFM tip to the actual measurement object. However, the sampling process of an AFM is non-linear and the processing of AFM scans requires complex algorithms. We have, therefore, recently begun to model the characterisation of micro spheres through simulations. In this contribution, this model is extended by the influence of the tip and reference surface. The influence of the tip’s shape and reference surface is investigated through virtual and real experiments. The shape of the tip is varied by using tips with mean radii of 200 nm and 2 μm while sampling the same ruby sphere with a mean radius of 150 μm. In general, the simulation results imply that an uncertainty of less then 10 nm is achievable. However, an experimental validation of the model is still pending. The experimental investigations were limited by the lack of a suitable cleaning strategy for micro parts, which demonstrates the need for further investigations in this area. Although the characterisation of a full sphere has already been demonstrated, the investigations in this contribution are limited to equator measurements.

Häcker, Annika-Verena; Stauffenberg, Jaqueline; Leineweber, Johannes; Ortlepp, Ingo; Hoffmann, Maximilian; Manske, Eberhard
Modularer Aufbau für das direkte Laserschreiben für Hochpräzise Nanostrukturierung :
Modular Direct Laser Writing setup for high precision nanostructuring. - In: Technisches Messen, ISSN 2196-7113, Bd. 90 (2023), 11, S. 749-758

The increasing demand for micro- and nanofabrication and in parallel the increasing requirements on feature size and resolution is leading to an enormous growth in the field of multi-photon three-dimensional fabrication. To enable new and diverse investigations in this field and to enable high precision for nanofabrication on large areas, a high precision positioning system is combined with an ultra-short pulse laser system. The aim is a modular setup with constant adherence to the Abbe-comparator principle in order to achieve systematic improvements in the area of Direct Laser Writing. For a high-quality identification of the microstructures a measurement tool based on atomic force microscopy is used. To enable the fabrication of continuous micro- and nanostructures on large area, an extremely high positioning precision is used, where no further stitching methods are necessary. Therefore as base of the Direct Laser Writing system the nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NMM-1) is used, which was developed at Technische Universität Ilmenau together with SIOS Meßtechnik GmbH, with a positioning volume of 25 mm × 25 mm × 5 mm and a positioning resolution in the sub-nanometer range. First investigations already confirmed that microfabrication with a Femtosecond Laser and the NMM-1 could be realized and showed the possibility of further developments in the field of Direct Laser Writing. Now the modular structure as a research platform is designed in such a way that the various extensions and measurement setups for large-scale investigations can always be implemented in a metrologically traceable manner. The presented work shows the development of a modular functional setup of an exposure system and NMM-1, which enables micro- and nanofabrication and an improvement in the structure size over large areas.

Liang, Weixiang; Chen, Jinyu; Jiang, Juncheng; Schalles, Marc; Marin, Sebastian; Augustin, Silke; Fröhlich, Thomas; Ding, Jiong
In-situ calibration method for thermocouples in accelerating rate calorimeter based on multiple fixed-points and Joule heat. - In: Thermochimica acta, Bd. 726 (2023), 179559, S. 1-11

To solve the problem of temperature drift of thermocouples in accelerating rate calorimeter caused by long-term operation, an in-situ calibration method based on multiple fixed-points and Joule heat is proposed in this article. Firstly, the heat transfer model of the calorimeter is established, and the validity of the method is verified by numerical simulation. Secondly, a multiple fixed-points graphite calibrator and a cylindrical electronic resistance element are designed. Finally, the in-situ calibration is carried out. The calibration results show that the maximum permissible measurement error of the sample thermocouple after calibration is better than 0.220 ˚C and that the bias of consistency in-situ calibration method is smaller than 0.110 ˚C. In addition, a di-tert-butyl peroxide in toluene solution with a mass percent of 20% is selected as the experimental sample. The sample experiment results show that the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are closer to the reference values after thermocouples calibration.

Shmagun, Vitalii; Vasilyan, Suren; Rogge, Norbert; Fröhlich, Thomas; Kissinger, Thomas
Comparison of fiber interferometric sensor with a commercial interferometer for a Kibble balance velocity calibration. - In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 1361-6501, Bd. 34 (2023), 12, 125017, S. 1-10

This article presents a fiber interferometric sensor (FIS) for measuring the velocity amplitude of an oscillatory vibrating object, with a focus on velocity mode measurement in applications using the Kibble balance principle. The sensor uses the range-resolved interferometry method to measure the displacement of the moving object and employs a multi-harmonic sine-fit algorithm to estimate the displacement amplitude and frequency, thereby determining the velocity amplitude. This article provides a comprehensive explanation of the experimental setup and the measurement techniques employed, as well as a detailed analysis of the uncertainty budget, with the performance validation of the FIS benchmarked against a commercial interferometer within a Kibble balance setup. The velocity amplitude of a coil of the Kibble balance, oscillating with an approx. amplitude of 20 μm and a frequency of 0.25 Hz, was measured using the sensor and found to be 31.282 31 μm s^−1 with a relative deviation of −1.9 ppm compared to a commercial interferometer. The high performance of the FIS, especially with regard to non-linearity errors, and the small size of the measuring head enable universality of integration into a wide variety of measurement systems, also including the use as general-purpose vibration and displacement sensor.

Shin, Dong Wook; Matsukuma, Hiraku; Sato, Ryo; Manske, Eberhard; Gao, Wei
Improved peak-to-peak method for cavity length measurement of a Fabry-Perot etalon using a mode-locked femtosecond laser. - In: Optics express, ISSN 1094-4087, Bd. 31 (2023), 16, S. 25797-25814

Differing from the conventional peak-to-peak method using two neighboring spectral peaks in the frequency-domain fringe spectrum of the spectral response of a Fabry-Perot etalon to a femtosecond laser, which contains N spectral peaks equally spaced with a spacing of the etalon free spectral range (FSR), the proposed method employs a pair of spectral peaks with a spacing of an integer multiple k (k ≫ 1) of FSR for measurement of the etalon cavity length d with a reduced measurement error. Under the constrain of the total N spectral peaks obtainable in the finite spectral range of the femtosecond laser, the optimized k is identified to be N/2 in consideration of an averaging operation using N - k samples of d to achieve the minimum measurement error. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by experimental results with an uncertainty analysis based on "Guides to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement".