Journal articles and book contributions (reviews)

Results: 260
Created on: Fri, 17 May 2024 23:06:46 +0200 in 0.0766 sec

Fröhlich, Thomas; Kissinger, Thomas; Manske, Eberhard
Process measurement technology and precision measurement technology :
Prozessmesstechnik und Präzisionsmesstechnik. - In: Technisches Messen, ISSN 2196-7113, Bd. 91 (2024), 5, S. 231-232
Meier, Martin; Weichert, Christoph; Kawohl, Jan; Flügge, Jens; Manske, Eberhard
Vergleich von vollständig fasergekoppelten Interferometersystemen unter Vakuumbedingungen :
Comparison of full fiber coupled interferometer systems under vacuum conditions. - In: Technisches Messen, ISSN 2196-7113, Bd. 91 (2024), 5, S. 281-289

The PTB built a comparator setup for testing length measuring systems under vacuum conditions. The setup is equipped with a linear stage which is operated in a closed loop using the feedback of a 1.5D encoder system with three encoder heads for length and vertical rotation angle and exhibits a movement range of 150 mm. The main measurement system is a heterodyne interferometer with periodic nonlinearities with amplitudes below 10 pm. The comparator setup was characterized using a mirror mounted on the stage reflecting the measurement as well as the reference beams. By these means, the resolution, the stability of the setup as well as the influence of guiding errors on position-dependent measurement deviations of the fully fiber coupled interferometer were investigated. A position-depending error was observed which was resulting from the variation of the performance of the coupling into the multi-mode fibers used to transfer the superposed beams to the photoreceivers. The measured deviations were 1.5 nm or 0.2 nm over 70 mm travel range depending on the core diameter of the multi-mode fibers of 50 µm and 200 µm, respectively. Three different commercial fiber interferometer systems were analysed under vacuum conditions with the comparator setup. All tested systems are working with light sources with a wavelength of approximately 1535 nm but differ in the amplitude of their periodic nonlinearities in the range between 10 pm and 29 nm. The tests of their resolution and stability were limited by vibrations in the comparator setup and the lack of adequate synchronization capabilities of the data acquisition of these systems.
Degenhardt, Johannes; Bounaim, Mohammed Wassim; Deng, Nan; Tutsch, Rainer; Dai, Gaoliang
A new kind of atomic force microscopy scan control enabled by artificial intelligence: concept for achieving tip and sample safety through asymmetric control. - In: Nanomanufacturing and metrology, ISSN 2520-8128, Bd. 7 (2024), 1, 11, S. 1-10

This paper introduces a paradigm shift in atomic force microscope (AFM) scan control, leveraging an artificial intelligence (AI)-based controller. In contrast to conventional control methods, which either show a limited performance, such as proportional integral differential (PID) control, or which purely focus on mathematical optimality as classical optimal control approaches, our proposed AI approach redefines the objective of control for achieving practical optimality. This presented AI controller minimizes the root-mean-square control deviations in routine scans by a factor of about 4 compared to PID control in the presented setup and also showcases a distinctive asymmetric response in complex situations, prioritizing the safety of the AFM tip and sample instead of the lowest possible control deviations. The development and testing of the AI control concept are performed on simulated AFM scans, demonstrating its huge potential.
Oertel, Erik; Manske, Eberhard
Der Einsatz von Mikrokugeln als Referenzartefakte für die in-situ-Charakterisierung von taktilen 3D-Mikrotastern entlang des Äquators der Tastkugel :
Using micro spheres as reference artifacts for the in-situ characterization of tactile 3D micro probes along the probing sphere’s equator. - In: Technisches Messen, ISSN 2196-7113, Bd. 91 (2024), 5, S. 244-254

Nano and micro coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) have been developed for the characterization of small dimensional features. They require a procedure which enables a traceable and precise characterization of probing spheres. In this contribution we explore the use of well characterized micro spheres as reference artifacts for the in-situ characterization of probing spheres along the probing sphere’s equator. The spheres are characterized using a strategy which is based on a set of tactile surface scans in conjunction with a stitching-algorithm. These micro spheres serve as a reference for the in-situ characterization of a tactile 3D micro probe on a nano measuring machine (NMM-1). Our investigations are based on a sample of eight spheres sourced from two different suppliers. Although the sample is small, we could already observe characteristics which seem to be typical for spheres of a certain type (i.e. nominal radius and material). The experiments indicate that micro spheres are a suitable reference artifact for tactile 3D micro probes. We were able to reproduce the measured mean radius of the probing sphere with a standard deviation of 31 nm using reference spheres whose nominal radius covers a range of 89 µm.
Liang, Weixiang; Ye, Zixin; Hu, Dongfang; Xu, Jinxin; Jiang, Juncheng; Fröhlich, Thomas; Ding, Jiong
Performance evaluation approach for accelerating rate calorimeters by means of Joule heat. - In: Thermochimica acta, Bd. 735 (2024), 179719, S. 1-9

Currently, the commonly used performance evaluation approach for accelerating rate calorimeters (ARCs) is based on di‑tert‑butyl peroxide (DTBP). However, DTBP is not a certified reference material that contains untraceable and inaccurate thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. To address this issue, an evaluation approach using Joule heat was proposed. The key point of this approach is the use of Joule heat to simulate the exothermic process of a chemical reaction. First, an evaluation apparatus with reaction rate feedback control was developed. Subsequently, exothermic reaction experiments using the DTBP/toluene solution were simulated. The experimental results indicated that the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters obtained using this approach align with the preset values and exhibit good repeatability. This approach is traceable and can be traced back to the International System of Units, which facilitates reliable performance evaluation of commercial ARCs.
Leineweber, Johannes; Hebenstreit, Roman; Häcker, Annika-Verena; Meyer, Christoph; Füßl, Roland; Manske, Eberhard; Theska, René
Characterization of a parallel kinematics actuated in situ reference measurement system for 5D-nano-measurement and nano-fabrication applications :
Charakterisierung eines parallelkinematisch aktuierten In-situ-Referenzmesssystems für 5D-Nanomess- und Fabrikationsanwendungen. - In: Technisches Messen, ISSN 2196-7113, Bd. 91 (2024), 2, S. 102-115

Die stetig voranschreitende Entwicklung im Bereich der Fertigung optischer und elektronischer Elemente auf Basis von Nanotechnologien führt seit Jahren zu einer steigenden Nachfrage nach hochpräzisen Nanomess- und Nanofabrikationsmaschinen (The International Roadmap For Devices And Systems, IEEE, 2020; C. Grant Willson and B. J. Roman, “The future of lithography: SEMATECH litho forum 2008,” ASC Nano , vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 1323-1328, 2008). Als technologisch besonders anspruchsvoll hat sich dabei die Fabrikation auf stark geneigten, gekrümmten, asphärischen und freigeformten Oberflächen herausgestellt (R. Schachtschneider, et al., “Interlaboratory comparison measurements of aspheres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. , vol. 29, no. 13pp, p. 055010, 2018). Aufbauend auf den zukunftsweisenden Entwicklungen der Nanopositionier- und Nanomessmaschine 1 (NMM-1) (G. Jäger, E. Manske, T. Hausotte, and J.-J. Büchner, “Nanomessmaschine zur abbefehlerfreien Koordinatenmessung,” tm - Tech. Mess. , vol. 67, nos. 7-8, pp. 319-323, 2000) und der Nanopositionier- und Nanomessmaschine 200 (NPMM-200) (E. Manske, G. Jäger, T. Hausotte, and F. Balzer, “Nanopositioning and Nanomeasuring Machine NPMM-200 - sub-nanometre resolution and highest accuracy in extended macroscopic working areas,” in Euspen’s 17th International Conference , 2017), wird an der Technischen Universität Ilmenau seit mehreren Jahren an Konzepten für NPMM mit erhöhtem Freiheitsgrad geforscht (F. Fern, “Metrologie in fünfachsigen Nanomess- und Nanopositioniermaschinen,” Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universität Ilmenau, 2020; R. Schienbein, “Grundlegende Untersuchungen zum konstruktiven Aufbau von Fünfachs-Nanopositionier- und Nanomessmaschinen,” Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universität Ilmenau, 2020). So besitzt der seit 2020 entwickelte Demonstrator NMM-5D (J. Leinweber, C. Meyer, R. Füßl, R. Theska, and E. Manske, “Ein neuartiges Konzept für 5D Nanopositionier-, Nanomess-, und Nanofabrikationsmaschinen,” tm - Tech. Mess. , vol. 37, nos. 1-10, 2022) neben dem kartesischen Verfahrbereich von 25mm × 25mm × 5mm zusätzlich ein Rotationsvermögen des Tools von 360˚ sowie ein Neigungsvermögen von 50˚. Imfolgenden Artikel wird davon ausgehend die mechanische und metrologische Charakterisierung der parallelkinematisch aktuierten Rotationserweiterung präsentiert. Hierbei konzentrieren sich durchgeführte Untersuchungen primär auf die kinematisch verursachten Abweichungen des Tool Center Point (TCP) sowie die Detektierung dieser Abweichungen mit einem interferometrischen In-situ -Referenzmesssystem. Darüber kann perspektivisch eine geregelte Kompensation der auftretenden TCP-Abweichungen erfolgen.
Sommer, Klaus-Dieter; Härtig, Frank; Heizmann, Michael; Kaiser, Ulrich
From measurement to information with intelligence - VDI future forum in Ettlingen/Germany :
Mit Intelligenz von der Messung zur Information - VDI-Zukunftsforum in Ettlingen. - In: Technisches Messen, ISSN 2196-7113, Bd. 91 (2024), 1, S. 1-3
Vasilyan, Suren; Rogge, Norbert; Preißler, Hannes; Starkloff, Michael; Schubert, Marco; Fröhlich, Thomas
Adaptation of metrology-grade ac current source in velocity mode of Planck-Balance 2: direct referencing induced voltages with ac quantum voltage standard. - In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 1361-6501, Bd. 35 (2024), 1, 015026, S. 1-11

The adaptation of developed metrology-grade ac current source (MCS) to the velocity mode of measurements of the Planck-Balance 2 as a means for generating ac mechanical oscillations is presented. The universality in operating with the MCS unit especially practical for the Planck-Balance setup for frequencies of 0.1 Hz-20 Hz (including but not limited to the negligence of a broader range of 0.01 Hz up to several hundred Hz) and for amplitudes of up to 10 mA with 16 (offset with 14)-bit effective resolution is demonstrated. MCS allows generating complex ac waveform signals as waveform synthesizers by adding to the original signal an extra five independent harmonic components, each of which with an adjustable resolution of 10 ns for phase and 16-bit for amplitude. Additionally, the MCS is supported by an external clock at 10 MHz frequency which serves also as a common reference time base for the comparison between the direct output signal of MCS, or of the induced voltage in the coil of the Planck-Balance resulting due to the applied current by MCS, with the ac quantum voltage standard at the required accuracy levels.
Oertel, Erik; Manske, Eberhard
Influence of the reference surface and AFM tip on the radius and roundness measurement of micro spheres. - In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 1361-6501, Bd. 35 (2024), 2, 025010, S. 1-16

The performance of tactile and optical surface sensors for nano and micro coordinate measuring machines is currently limited by the lack of precisely characterised micro spheres, since established strategies have mainly been developed for spheres in the range of millimetres or above. We have, therefore, recently focused our research efforts towards a novel strategy for the characterisation of spheres in the sub-millimetre range. It is based on a set of atomic force microscope (AFM) surface scans in conjunction with a stitching algorithm. To obtain an uncertainty statement, the uncertainty about the shape of the reference surface needs to be propagated via the shape of the AFM tip to the actual measurement object. However, the sampling process of an AFM is non-linear and the processing of AFM scans requires complex algorithms. We have, therefore, recently begun to model the characterisation of micro spheres through simulations. In this contribution, this model is extended by the influence of the tip and reference surface. The influence of the tip’s shape and reference surface is investigated through virtual and real experiments. The shape of the tip is varied by using tips with mean radii of 200 nm and 2 μm while sampling the same ruby sphere with a mean radius of 150 μm. In general, the simulation results imply that an uncertainty of less then 10 nm is achievable. However, an experimental validation of the model is still pending. The experimental investigations were limited by the lack of a suitable cleaning strategy for micro parts, which demonstrates the need for further investigations in this area. Although the characterisation of a full sphere has already been demonstrated, the investigations in this contribution are limited to equator measurements.
Häcker, Annika-Verena; Stauffenberg, Jaqueline; Leineweber, Johannes; Ortlepp, Ingo; Hoffmann, Maximilian; Manske, Eberhard
Modularer Aufbau für das direkte Laserschreiben für Hochpräzise Nanostrukturierung :
Modular Direct Laser Writing setup for high precision nanostructuring. - In: Technisches Messen, ISSN 2196-7113, Bd. 90 (2023), 11, S. 749-758

The increasing demand for micro- and nanofabrication and in parallel the increasing requirements on feature size and resolution is leading to an enormous growth in the field of multi-photon three-dimensional fabrication. To enable new and diverse investigations in this field and to enable high precision for nanofabrication on large areas, a high precision positioning system is combined with an ultra-short pulse laser system. The aim is a modular setup with constant adherence to the Abbe-comparator principle in order to achieve systematic improvements in the area of Direct Laser Writing. For a high-quality identification of the microstructures a measurement tool based on atomic force microscopy is used. To enable the fabrication of continuous micro- and nanostructures on large area, an extremely high positioning precision is used, where no further stitching methods are necessary. Therefore as base of the Direct Laser Writing system the nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NMM-1) is used, which was developed at Technische Universität Ilmenau together with SIOS Meßtechnik GmbH, with a positioning volume of 25 mm × 25 mm × 5 mm and a positioning resolution in the sub-nanometer range. First investigations already confirmed that microfabrication with a Femtosecond Laser and the NMM-1 could be realized and showed the possibility of further developments in the field of Direct Laser Writing. Now the modular structure as a research platform is designed in such a way that the various extensions and measurement setups for large-scale investigations can always be implemented in a metrologically traceable manner. The presented work shows the development of a modular functional setup of an exposure system and NMM-1, which enables micro- and nanofabrication and an improvement in the structure size over large areas.