Publications at the Institute of Physics

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Kröger, Jörg; Néel, Nicolas;
Scanning probe microscopy - from surfaces to single atoms. - In: Encyclopedia of applied physics, (2020), S. 1-39

This article highlights the important role of scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy in modern surface science experiments. Imaging with atomic resolution, manipulation of matter atom by atom, spectroscopy of confined electrons, molecular vibrational quanta, surface phonons, singleatom spin flips, and singlemolecule fluorescence photons are some of the diverse applications of the microscopes. The impact of the actual atomic or molecular termination of the tip is emphasized. A variety of examples presents the state of the art in quantum physics of surfaces and interfaces and demonstrates that scanning probe techniques significantly contribute to the understanding of matter at the atomic scale.
Schulte, Stefan; Hartung, Gerd; Kröger, Jörg; Himmerlich, Marcel; Petit, Valentine; Taborelli, Mauro;
Energy-resolved secondary-electron emission of candidate beam screen materials for electron cloud mitigation at the Large Hadron Collider. - In: Physical review accelerators and beams, ISSN 2469-9888, Bd. 23 (2020), 10, S. 103101-1-103101-10

Energy-resolved secondary electron spectroscopy has been performed on air-exposed standard Cu samples and modified Cu surfaces that are tested and possibly applied to efficiently suppress electron cloud formation in the high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The Cu samples comprise pristine oxygen-free, carbon-coated and laser-structured surfaces, which were characterized prior to and after electron irradiation and rare-gas ion bombardment. Secondary-electron and reflected-electron yields measured with low charge dose of the samples exhibit a universal dependence on the energy of the primary impinging electrons. State-of-the-art models can successfully be used to describe the spectroscopic data. The supplied spectral dependence of electron emission and integrated electron yield as well as the derived parametrization can serve as a basis for forthcoming simulations of electron cloud formation and multipacting.
Bosch, Martí; Behrens, Arne; Sinzinger, Stefan; Hentschel, Martina;
Optische Systeme im Phasenraumbild. - In: DGaO-Proceedings, ISSN 1614-8436, Bd. 121 (2020), B29, insges. 2 S.
Xiao, Meiling; Xing, Zihao; Jin, Zhao; Liu, Changpeng; Ge, Junjie; Zhu, Jianbing; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Xiao; Chen, Zhongwei;
Preferentially engineering FeN4 edge sites onto graphitic nanosheets for highly active and durable oxygen electrocatalysis in rechargeable Zn-air batteries. - In: Advanced materials, ISSN 1521-4095, Bd. 32 (2020), 49, 2004900, insges. 9 S.
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Single-atom FeN4 sites at the edges of carbon substrates are considered more active for oxygen electrocatalysis than those in plane; however, the conventional high-temperature pyrolysis process does not allow for precisely engineering the location of the active site down to atomic level. Enlightened by theoretical prediction, herein, a self-sacrificed templating approach is developed to obtain edge-enriched FeN4 sites integrated in the highly graphitic nanosheet architecture. The in situ formed Fe clusters are intentionally introduced to catalyze the growth of graphitic carbon, induce porous structure formation, and most importantly, facilitate the preferential anchoring of FeN4 to its close approximation. Due to these attributes, the as-resulted catalyst (denoted as Fe/N-G-SAC) demonstrates unprecedented catalytic activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) by showing an impressive half-wave potential of 0.89 V for the ORR and a small overpotential of 370 mV at 10 mA cm^-2 for the OER. Moreover, the Fe/N-G-SAC cathode displays encouraging performance in a rechargeable Zn-air battery prototype with a low charge-discharge voltage gap of 0.78 V and long-term cyclability for over 240 cycles, outperforming the noble metal benchmarks.
Huo, Dexian; Chen, Bin; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Zhulin; Li, Mingtao; Lei, Yong;
Ag-nanoparticlesbacterial nanocellulose as a 3D flexible and robust surface-enhanced raman scattering substrate. - In: ACS applied materials & interfaces, ISSN 1944-8252, Bd. 12 (2020), 45, S. 50713-50720

We present a well-designed, low-cost, and simple synthetic approach to realizing the hybrid composites of Ag nanoparticle-decorated bacterial nanocellulose (denoted as Ag-NPsBNC) as a three-dimensional (3D) flexible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate with ultrahigh SERS sensitivity, excellent signal reproducibility, and stability. The homogeneous Ag-NPs with high density were in situ grown on the networked BNC fibers by the controlled silver mirror reaction and volume shrinkage treatment, which created uniformly distributed SERS "hot spots" in the 3D networked hybrid substrate. Attributed to these unique 3D hot spots, the as-presented Ag-NPs@BNC substrates exhibited ultrahigh sensitivity and good spectral reproducibility. Moreover, the hydrophilic BNC exhibits good permeability and adsorption performances, which could capture the target molecules in the highly active hot spot areas to further improve the SERS sensitivity. As a result, not only dye molecules (rhodamine 6G) but also toxic organic pollutants such as 2-naphthalenethiol and thiram have been detected using the hybrid substrates as SERS substrates, with sensitivities of 1.6 × 10-8 and 3.8 × 10-9 M, respectively. The good linear response of the intensity and the logarithmic concentration revealed promising applications in the rapid and quantitative detection of toxic organic pollutants. Besides, this self-supported Ag-NPs@BNC substrate demonstrated good stability and flexibility for varied detection conditions. Therefore, the 3D networked, flexible, ultrasensitive, and stable Ag-NPs@BNC substrate shows potential as a versatile SERS substrate in the rapid identification of various organic molecules.
Romanyuk, Oleksandr; Supplie, Oliver; Paszuk, Agnieszka; Stoeckmann, Jan Philipp; Wilks, Regan George; Bombsch, Jakob; Hartmann, Claudia; Garcia Diez, Raul; Ueda, Shigenori; Bartoš, Igor; Gordeev, Ivan; Houdkova, Jana; Kleinschmidt, Peter; Bär, Marcus; Jiříček, Petr; Hannappel, Thomas;
Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of core level shifts at buried GaP/Si(001) interfaces. - In: Surface and interface analysis, ISSN 1096-9918, Bd. 52 (2020), 12, S. 933-938

We present a study of buried GaP/Si(001) heterointerfaces by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Well-defined thin (4-50 nm) GaP films were grown on Si(001) substrates with 2˚ miscut orientations by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Core level photoelectron intensities and valence band spectra were measured on heterostructures as well as on the corresponding reference (bulk) substrates. Detailed analysis of core level peaks revealed line broadening and energetic shifts. Valence band offsets were derived for the films with different thickness. Based on the observed variation of the valence band offsets with the GaP film thickness and on the experimental evidence of line broadening, the existence of charge displacement at the GaP/Si(001) interface is suggested.
Kreismann, Jakob; Hentschel, Martina;
Spin-orbit interaction of light in three-dimensional microcavities. - In: Physical review, ISSN 2469-9934, Bd. 102 (2020), 4, S. 043524

We investigate the spin-orbit coupling of light in three-dimensional cylindrical and tubelike whispering gallery mode resonators. We show that its origin is the transverse confinement of light in the resonator walls, even in the absence of inhomogeneities or anisotropies. The spin-orbit interaction results in elliptical far-field polarization (spin) states and causes spatial separation of polarization handedness in the far field. The ellipticity and spatial separation are enhanced for whispering gallery modes with higher excitation numbers along the resonator height. We analyze the asymmetry of the ellipticity and the tilt of the polarization orientation in the far field of conelike microcavities. Furthermore, we find a direct relationship between the tilt of the polarization orientation in the far field and the local inclination of the resonator wall. Our findings are based on finite-difference time-domain simulations and are supported by three-dimensional diffraction theory.
Zhang, Chenglin; Zhao, Huaping; Lei, Yong;
Recent research progress of anode materials for potassium-ion batteries. - In: Energy & Environmental Materials, ISSN 2575-0356, Bd. 3 (2020), 2, S. 105-120

The next-generation smart grid for the storage and delivery of renewable energy urgently needs to develop a low-cost and rechargeable energy storage technology beyond lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Owing to the abundance of potassium (K) resources and the similar electrochemical performance to that of LIBs, potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) have been attracted considerable interest in recent years, and significant progress has been achieved concerning the discovery of high-performance electrode materials for PIBs. This review especially summarizes the latest research progress regarding anode materials for PIBs, including carbon materials, organic materials, alloys, metal-based compounds, and other new types of compounds. The reversible K-ion storage principle and the electrochemical performance (i.e., capacity, potential, rate capability, and cyclability) of these developed anode materials are summarized. Furthermore, the challenges and the corresponding effective strategies to enhance the battery performance of the anode materials are highlighted. Finally, prospects of the future development of high-performance anode materials for PIBs are discussed.
Xu, Rui; Wen, Liaoyong; Wang, Zhijie; Zhao, Huaping; Mu, Guannan; Zeng, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Min; Bohm, Sebastian; Zhang, Huanming; Wu, Yuhan; Runge, Erich; Lei, Yong;
Programmable multiple plasmonic resonances of nanoparticle superlattice for enhancing photoelectrochemical activity. - In: Advanced functional materials, ISSN 1616-3028, Bd. 30 (2020), 48, 2005170, insges. 10 S.
Hähnlein, Bernd; Hofmann, Tim; Tonisch, Katja; Pezoldt, Jörg; Kovac, Jaroslav; Krischok, Stefan;
Structural analysis of sputtered Sc(x)Al(1-x)N layers for sensor applications. - In: Materials science and smart materials, (2020), S. 13-18