List of publications

Results: 188
Created on: Mon, 22 Apr 2024 23:15:31 +0200 in 0.0834 sec

Schwarz, Andreas; Diers-Lawson, Audra
Mediated crises and strategic crisis communication of third sector organizations: a content analysis of crisis reporting in six countries. - In: Corporate communications, ISSN 1758-6046, Bd. 0 (2024), 0

Purpose: This study aims to contribute to strategic crisis communication research by exploring international media representations of third sector crises and crisis response; expanding the range of crisis types beyond transgressions; and developing a framework that integrates framing and crisis communication theory. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative content analysis was applied to identify patterns in crisis reporting of 18 news media outlets in Canada, Germany, India, Switzerland, UK and US. Using an inductive framing approach, crisis coverage of nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) between 2015 and 2018 was analyzed across a wide range of crises, including but not limited to prominent cases such as Oxfam, Kids Company, or the Islamic Research Foundation. Findings: The news media in six countries report more internal crises in the third sector than external crises. The most frequent crisis types were fraud and corruption, sexual violence/personal exploitation and attacks on organizations. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three components of crisis response strategies quoted in the media, conditional rebuild, defensive and justified denial strategies. Causal attributions and conditional rebuild strategies significantly influenced media evaluations of organizational crisis response. Three frames of third sector crises were detected; the critique, the damage and the victim frame. These frames emphasize different crisis types, causes, crisis response strategies and evaluations of crisis response. Originality/value: The study reveals the particularities of crises and crisis communication in the third sector and identifies factors that influence mediated portrayals of crises and crisis response strategies of nonprofit organizations (NPOs) from an international comparative perspective. The findings have relevant implications for crisis communication theory and practice.
Liu, Brooke Fisher; Jin, Yan; Zhao, Wenqing; Schwarz, Andreas; Truban, Olivia; Seeger, Matthew W.
Building the new architecture of crisis management: global experts' insights on best and worst practices for securing external funding. - In: Journal of contingencies and crisis management, ISSN 1468-5973, Bd. 32 (2024), 1, e12539, S. 1-12

External funding is an important yet understudied area of inquiry in crisis communication research. With external funding being a keystone of assessing and broadening research impact in both academia and industry, it is important for scholarship to examine effective practices for funding proposals. This study explores the best and worst practices for funded research through an expert consultation survey of 36 global communication scholars with track records of funding success. Findings reveal motivating factors for seeking, securing and managing funding, as well as institutional factors. Findings also inform best and worst practices for securing external funding, including bridging theory and practice and establishing strong research partnerships.
Schwarz, Andreas; Unselt, Janina Jacqueline
Rage against the machine? : framing societal threat and efficacy in YouTube videos about artificial intelligence. - In: Risk analysis, ISSN 1539-6924, Bd. 0 (2024), 0, S. 1-19

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of the mainstream public discourse beyond expert communities about its risks, benefits, and need for regulation. In particular, since 2014, the news media have intensified their coverage of this emerging technology and its potential impact on most domains of society. Although many studies have analyzed traditional media coverage of AI, analyses of social media, especially video-sharing platforms, are rare. In addition, research from a risk communication perspective remains scarce, despite the widely recognized potential threats to society from many AI applications. This study aims to detect recurring patterns of societal threat/efficacy in YouTube videos, analyze their main sources, and compare detected frames in terms of reach and response. Using a theoretical framework combining framing and risk communication, the study analyzed the societal threat/efficacy attributed to AI in easily accessible YouTube videos published in a year when public attention to AI temporarily peaked (2018). Four dominant AI frames were identified: the balanced frame, the high-efficacy frame, the high-threat frame, and the no-threat frame. The balanced and no-threat frames were the most prevalent, with predominantly positive and neutral AI narratives that neither adequately address the risks nor the necessary societal response from a normative risk communication perspective. The results revealed the specific risks and benefits of AI that are most frequently addressed. Video views and user engagement with AI videos were analyzed. Recommendations for effective AI risk communication and implications for risk governance were derived from the results.
Schwarz, Andreas; Faj, Tatjana
Communicating and perceiving risks of artificial intelligence as an emerging technology. - In: Communicating risk and safety, (2024), S. 503-526

Even if the current state of development of artificial intelligence (AI) as a technology is still far from “independently thinking” or “self-conscious” machines, some prominent voices in recent years have warned against too careless handling of AI including its applications in political campaigns, consumer marketing, autonomous mobility, or warfare (Beishon 2018; Brundage et al. 2018). On the other hand, influential actors in business and politics have significant interest in promoting the development and distribution of AI-based applications for their own or a broader benefit. The way public voices, including voices from the news media, frame the risks and benefits of AI will have important consequences on the adoption, legal regulations, investment, and funding of AI, as well as the technology’s societal impact at large. This chapter reviews relevant research that addresses the question of how risks of an emerging technology such as AI are framed in news media or social media and how these risks are perceived by different stakeholders in society. By doing so, important concepts and models of risk communication are presented and evaluated in terms of their potential for future research and/or application.
Schwarz, Andreas; Sellnow, Timothy L.; Geppert, Johanna; Sellnow, Deanna D.
Protective action as an enduring keystone of risk communication: effective form, function and process of risk messaging as advocated by global higher education practitioners during a pandemic. - In: Journal of contingencies and crisis management, ISSN 1468-5973, Bd. 32 (2024), 1, e12545, S. 1-6

Risk communication is a keystone in crisis prevention and mitigation. For that purpose, many institutions worldwide have the task of translating scientific risk information into actionable messages for public safety. As a collaboration among international risk and crisis communication scholars and practitioners, we sought to identify what risk communication practitioners at higher education organizations in the Global South and North identify as essential elements of effective risk communication, based on 32 interviews in 16 countries during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (June-August, 2020). Results exemplify a shared vision for addressing the stickiest, most wicked challenges to effective risk communication globally. The interviews revealed globally shared best practices related to form, function, and process leading directly to what we consider the keystone of effective risk communication: saving lives (outcome).
Schwarz, Andreas; Seidl, Eva
Stories of astrobiology, SETI, and UAPs: science and the search for extraterrestrial life in German news media from 2009 to 2022. - In: Science communication, ISSN 1552-8545, Bd. 45 (2023), 6, S. 788-823

The search for extraterrestrial intelligent (SETI) and non-intelligent extraterrestrial life has recently received considerable attention in academia and international news media. Since media frames of scientific space exploration potentially influence public support and perceptions of science, the German news media’s coverage of extraterrestrial life was analyzed. The three dominant frames from 2009 to 2022 were beneficial space exploration, unidentified aerial phenomena (UAP)/extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI), and SETI risk. Two frames relied primarily on scientific sources, mainly universities/research centers, NASA, the SETI Institute, and Stephen Hawking. The European Space Agency (ESA), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), and astrobiology as a discipline were rarely cited. Implications for science and risk communication are discussed.
Schwarz, Andreas; Alpers, Francis; Wagner-Olfermann, Elisabeth; Diers-Lawson, Audra
The global study of COVID news: scope, findings, and implications of quantitative content analyses of the COVID-19 news coverage in the first two years of the pandemic. - In: Health communication, ISSN 1532-7027, Bd. 0 (2023), 0, S. 1-14

Researchers and practitioners have unanimously acknowledged the impact of legacy media coverage of past pandemics as well as COVID-19 and its importance for health-related risk communication. Therefore, this study provides scholars and health communication practitioners with a deeper understanding of the patterns, main themes, and limitations of media reporting and peer-reviewed research in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in different national media environments. Because the objective is to evaluate patterns, this paper focuses on early quantitative and automated content analyses for theoretical contribution, geographic diversity, methodological rigor, and inclusion of risk and crisis communication theory. It also assesses whether authors deduced implications, for both theory and practice of health-related risk and crisis communication. We conducted a content analysis of 66 studies in peer-reviewed journals from the beginning of the pandemic until April 2022. The findings demonstrate that early quantitative analyses of the news coverage of COVID-19 are often not theory-driven, apply heterogeneous forms of framing analysis, and lack references to risk and crisis communication theory. Consequently, only few implications for health communication practice during pandemics were drawn. However, there is evidence of improvement in geographic scope compared to previous research. The discussion addresses the importance of developing a consistent approach to framing analyses of risk and crisis media coverage and the importance of well-designed cross-cultural research in a global pandemic.
Schwarz, Andreas;
Journalismus und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit. - In: Handbuch Journalismustheorien, (2023), S. 1-20
Living reference work entry

Der Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über die wichtigsten Ansätze und Befunde zur theoretischen Beschreibung der Beziehungen zwischen Public Relations und Journalismus. Im deutschsprachigen Raum sind dies insbesondere die Determinationsthese, die systemtheoretischen Konzepte der strukturellen Kopplung und Interpenetration sowie das Intereffikationsmodell. Die internationale Kommunikationsforschung rekurriert neben Einflussmodellen des Journalismus primär auf Ansätze wie Agenda-Building, Informationssubvention, Framing und Koorientierung. Diese Modelle und Theorien werden vergleichend diskutiert und in eine abschließende Erörterung von Perspektiven und Anknüpfungspunkten für künftige Forschung überführt. Bislang fehlen Ansätze, die Mikro- und Makroebene theoretisch verschränken. Die empirischen Befunde verweisen auf ambivalente Beziehungen zwischen PR und Journalismus und kontextabhängig variierende Einflussgrade.
Wagner-Olfermann, Elisabeth;
Political leadership in transboundary crises, responsibility attributions, and the role of the media: a synthesis of previous research and theoretical extension. - In: Annals of the International Communication Association, ISSN 2380-8977, Bd. 46 (2022), 4, S. 290-304

With the increasing frequency of transboundary crises in the twenty-first century - examples from the past are the financial crisis, the migration crisis and the current coronavirus pandemic - the need for political leadership beyond national borders is growing. As public visibility is an essential leadership resource with regard to transboundary leadership, the question arises of how media construct and thus legitimize political leadership in transboundary crises. The basic theoretical assumption is that perceived leadership in a transboundary crisis results from publicly observable processes of attributing responsibility beyond geographical and hierarchical boundaries. Consequently, a tool for capturing attribution statements, their senders and addressees as well as their reasoning in the media coverage is presented.
Schwarz, Andreas; Löffelholz, Martin
Krisenkommunikation: Vorbereitung, Umsetzung, Erfolgsfaktoren. - In: Handbuch Unternehmenskommunikation, (2022), S. 963-979