Publications of the Fachgebiet Fahrzeugtechnik

Anzahl der Treffer: 309
Erstellt: Thu, 06 Oct 2022 23:08:07 +0200 in 0.0682 sec


Kunze, Miles; Feißel, Toni; Ivanov, Valentin; Bachmann, Thomas; Hesse, David; Gramstat, Sebastian;
Analysis of TRWP particle distribution in urban and suburban landscapes, connecting real road measurements with particle distribution simulation. - In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, Bd. 13 (2022), 8, 1204, S. 1-17

This article deals with methods and measurements related to environmental pollution and analysis of particle distribution in urban and suburban landscapes. Therefore, an already-invented sampling method for tyre road wear particles (TRWP) was used to capture online emission factors from the road. The collected particles were analysed according to their size distribution, for use as an input for particle distribution simulations. The simulation model was a main traffic intersection, because of the high vehicle dynamic related to the high density of start-stop manoeuvres. To compare the simulation results (particle mass (PM) and particle number (PN)) with real-world emissions, measuring points were defined and analysed over a measuring time of 8 h during the day. Afterwards, the collected particles were analysed in terms of particle shape, appearance and chemical composition, to identify the distribution and their place of origin. As a result of the investigation, the appearance of the particles showed a good correlation to the vehicle dynamics, even though there were a lot of background influences, e.g., resuspension of dust. Air humidity also showed a great influence on the recorded particle measurements. In areas of high vehicle dynamics, such as heavy braking or accelerating, more tyre and brake particles could be found.



https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13081204
Feißel, Toni; Hesse, David; Ricciardi, Vincenzo; Schiele, Martin; Augsburg, Klaus;
Novel approaches for measuring and predicting particulate emissions from automotive brakes and tires. - In: 12th International Munich Chassis Symposium 2021, (2022), S. 708-728

Traffic-related emissions are strongly criticised by the public because they con-tribute to climate change and are classified as hazardous to health. Combustion engine emissions have been regulated by limit values for almost three decades. There is currently no legal limit for non-exhaust emissions, which include par-ticulate brake and tire wear and resuspension. As a result, the percentage of total vehicle emissions has risen continuously. Since some of the particles can be as-signed to the size classes of particulate matter (≤ 10 µm), these sources of par-ticulate matter are of particular relevance to human health. To predict the amount of particles emitted as a function of the driving situation or driving condition, a comprehensive database must be prepared and transferred to a prediction model. This makes it possible to simulate environmental pollution in multivalent traffic scenarios. At present, no approaches have been described in the literature by whose application the emission indicators can be effectively pre-dicted. Furthermore, the mechanisms of brake and tire particle formation are as-sociated with highly stochastic phenomena that cannot be captured by traditional deterministic modelling tools. Therefore, machine learning algorithms are used in the present work to identify branched correlations between tribological properties, pad composition and operating conditions. Different experimental methods are presented to determine brake and tire particle emission models. In addition, an approach is presented which reduces the amount of emitted parti-cles on the basis of a situation-dependent driving condition control, especially with regard to future semi-autonomous and autonomous mobility systems.



Hamatschek, Christopher; Hesse, David; Augsburg, Klaus; Gramstat, Sebastian; Stich, Anton;
Comparison of the particle emission behaviour of automotive drum and disc brakes. - In: 12th International Munich Chassis Symposium 2021, (2022), S. 541-563

Friction brakes are one of the main sources of PM emissions from cars today. However, due to the electrification of the powertrain, the share of friction brakes in vehicle deceleration is continuously decreasing. Due to the reduced number of braking applications and the lower brake pressure level, the amount of emitted particles also decreases. This is associated with the disadvantage of an increased potential for the formation of rust on the surfaces of the friction materials, which is expected to influence friction and wear. Due to the increasing challenge posed by corroded friction partners, drum brakes are increasingly used to decelerate bat-tery electric (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). In this study, basic investigations on the particle emission behaviour of drum brakes are carried out using an inertia dynamometer (LINK 3900-NVH). To en-sure representative sampling, a constant-volume sampling system is used, which is optimised in terms of transport efficiency and particle distribution. Condensa-tion particle counters (CPC) and filter holders (TX40) are used to determine PN/PM emission factors. CPCs with differently calibrated cut-off are used to evaluate the formation of nanoscale particle formations. In this context, special at-tention is paid to the influence of temperature on the particle formation process. From the comparison between rear-axle disc brake and rear-axle drum brake it could be proven that the predominant part of the wear mass remains within the drum, which affects the size distribution of the emitted particles. The ratio be-tween PM10 and PM2.5 mass-related emissions factors decreases from about 2 (disc brake) to about 1.3 (drum brake). In addition, the emission behaviour is dif-ferentiated via the bedding procedure of the drum brake. To achieve a reproduci-ble emission level, a doubling of the number of cycles (WLTP-brake cycle) is necessary. Due to a higher temperature level, nanoparticles could be detected dur-ing testing of the drum brake, whereby the number-related emission factor (PM2.5) was partly higher than for the disc brake.



Alfonso, Jesus; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Bernad, Carlos; Beliautsou, Viktar; Ivanov, Valentin; Castellanos, Jose Angel;
Geographically distributed real-time co-simulation of electric vehicle. - In: IEEE Xplore digital library, ISSN 2473-2001, (2022), S. 1002-1007

The present paper shows the capabilities of a distributed real-time co-simulation environment merging simulation models and testing facilities for developing and verifying electric vehicles. This environment has been developed in the framework of the XILforEV project and the presented case is focused on a ride control with a real suspension installed on a test bench in Spain, which uses real-time information from a complete vehicle model in Germany. Given the long distance between both sites, it has been necessary to develop a specific delay compensation algorithm. This algorithm is general enough to be used in other real-time co-simulation frameworks. In the present work, the system architecture including the communication compensation is described and successfully experimentally validated.



https://doi.org/10.1109/CoDIT55151.2022.9804062
Fedorova, Aleksandra; Beliautsou, Viktar; Zimmermann, Armin;
Colored Petri net modelling and evaluation of drone inspection methods for distribution networks. - In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, Bd. 22 (2022), 9, 3418, S. 1-20

https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093418
Augsburg, Klaus; Hesse, David; Ricciardi, Vincenzo; Feißel, Toni;
Methoden zur Messung und Prädiktion der Partikelemissionen von Bremse und Reifen. - In: [Hauptband], (2021), S. 185-204

Lehne, Christoph; Ivanov, Valentin; Augsburg, Klaus; Büchner, Florian; Schreiber, Viktor; Herman, Jernej; Pašič, Jure; Zavrl, Blaž;
Distributed local X-in-the-loop environment - a tool for electric vehicle systems design. - In: Zenodo, (2021), insges. 6 S.

The paper describes methodology and corresponding environment for development, validation and testing of complex electric vehicle (EV) systems. The proposed approach is based on distribution of relevant design tasks between remotely working testing equipment with real-time (RT) data sharing and data exchange. The approach is demonstrated by the example of X-in-the-loop (XIL) environment uniting electric motor test setup, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) platform with brake-by-wire system, and the brake dynamometer. The study introduces how this configuration of experimental tools can be used by designing the brake blending and control of an EV.



https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4905931
Armengaud, Eric; Wikström, Niklas; Buh, Joze; Dhaens, Miguel; Gramstat, Sebastian; Groppo, Ricardo; Heydrich, Marius; Ivanov, Valentin; Mazzoni, Matteo; Sorniotti, Aldo;
Advanced electric vehicle components for long-distance daily trips. - In: Zenodo, (2021), insges. 8 S.

This paper introduces a holistic engineering approach for the design of an electric sport utility vehicle focused on the reliable capability of long-distance daily trips. This approach is targeting integration of advanced powertrain and chassis components to achieve energy-efficient driving dynamics through manifold contribution of their improved functions. The powertrain layout of the electric vehicle under discussion is designed for an e-traction axle system including in-wheel motors and the dual inverter. The main elements of the chassis layout are the electro-magnetic suspension and the hybrid brake-by-wire system with electro-hydraulic actuators on the front axle and the electro-mechanical actuators on the rear axle. All the listed powertrain and chassis components are united under an integrated vehicle dynamics and energy management control strategy that is also outlined in the paper. The study is illustrated with the experimental results confirming the achieved high performance on the electric vehicle systems level.



https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4905907
Schreiber, Viktor; Büchner, Florian; Lehne, Christoph; Ivanov, Valentin;
X-in-the-Loop-Ansatz zur Entwicklung von Elektrofahrzeugen. - In: MTZ extra, ISSN 2509-4580, (2021), 8, S. 18-22

Schreiber, Viktor; Ivanov, Valentin;
Optimization using a shared and distributed X-in-the-Loop testing environment. - In: 2021 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), (2021), insges. 6 S.

X-in-the-loop (XIL) technologies have been receiving increased attention in modern automotive development processes. In particular, collaborative experiments using XIL tools have efficient applications in the design of multi-actuated, electric, and automated vehicles. The presented paper introduces results of such a collaborative study with XIL, which focused on the feasibility of coordinated real-time (RT) simulations for the control of vehicle dynamics systems. The outcomes are based on extensive co-simulation tests performed with remote connections among different geographical locations. The performed study allowed formulating requirements for further shared and distributed XIL-experiments for functional validation of automotive control systems.



https://doi.org/10.1109/VPPC53923.2021.9699231

Publications of the Fachgebiet Fahrzeugtechnik

Anzahl der Treffer: 309
Erstellt: Thu, 06 Oct 2022 23:08:07 +0200 in 0.0681 sec


Kunze, Miles; Feißel, Toni; Ivanov, Valentin; Bachmann, Thomas; Hesse, David; Gramstat, Sebastian;
Analysis of TRWP particle distribution in urban and suburban landscapes, connecting real road measurements with particle distribution simulation. - In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, Bd. 13 (2022), 8, 1204, S. 1-17

This article deals with methods and measurements related to environmental pollution and analysis of particle distribution in urban and suburban landscapes. Therefore, an already-invented sampling method for tyre road wear particles (TRWP) was used to capture online emission factors from the road. The collected particles were analysed according to their size distribution, for use as an input for particle distribution simulations. The simulation model was a main traffic intersection, because of the high vehicle dynamic related to the high density of start-stop manoeuvres. To compare the simulation results (particle mass (PM) and particle number (PN)) with real-world emissions, measuring points were defined and analysed over a measuring time of 8 h during the day. Afterwards, the collected particles were analysed in terms of particle shape, appearance and chemical composition, to identify the distribution and their place of origin. As a result of the investigation, the appearance of the particles showed a good correlation to the vehicle dynamics, even though there were a lot of background influences, e.g., resuspension of dust. Air humidity also showed a great influence on the recorded particle measurements. In areas of high vehicle dynamics, such as heavy braking or accelerating, more tyre and brake particles could be found.



https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13081204
Feißel, Toni; Hesse, David; Ricciardi, Vincenzo; Schiele, Martin; Augsburg, Klaus;
Novel approaches for measuring and predicting particulate emissions from automotive brakes and tires. - In: 12th International Munich Chassis Symposium 2021, (2022), S. 708-728

Traffic-related emissions are strongly criticised by the public because they con-tribute to climate change and are classified as hazardous to health. Combustion engine emissions have been regulated by limit values for almost three decades. There is currently no legal limit for non-exhaust emissions, which include par-ticulate brake and tire wear and resuspension. As a result, the percentage of total vehicle emissions has risen continuously. Since some of the particles can be as-signed to the size classes of particulate matter (≤ 10 µm), these sources of par-ticulate matter are of particular relevance to human health. To predict the amount of particles emitted as a function of the driving situation or driving condition, a comprehensive database must be prepared and transferred to a prediction model. This makes it possible to simulate environmental pollution in multivalent traffic scenarios. At present, no approaches have been described in the literature by whose application the emission indicators can be effectively pre-dicted. Furthermore, the mechanisms of brake and tire particle formation are as-sociated with highly stochastic phenomena that cannot be captured by traditional deterministic modelling tools. Therefore, machine learning algorithms are used in the present work to identify branched correlations between tribological properties, pad composition and operating conditions. Different experimental methods are presented to determine brake and tire particle emission models. In addition, an approach is presented which reduces the amount of emitted parti-cles on the basis of a situation-dependent driving condition control, especially with regard to future semi-autonomous and autonomous mobility systems.



Hamatschek, Christopher; Hesse, David; Augsburg, Klaus; Gramstat, Sebastian; Stich, Anton;
Comparison of the particle emission behaviour of automotive drum and disc brakes. - In: 12th International Munich Chassis Symposium 2021, (2022), S. 541-563

Friction brakes are one of the main sources of PM emissions from cars today. However, due to the electrification of the powertrain, the share of friction brakes in vehicle deceleration is continuously decreasing. Due to the reduced number of braking applications and the lower brake pressure level, the amount of emitted particles also decreases. This is associated with the disadvantage of an increased potential for the formation of rust on the surfaces of the friction materials, which is expected to influence friction and wear. Due to the increasing challenge posed by corroded friction partners, drum brakes are increasingly used to decelerate bat-tery electric (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). In this study, basic investigations on the particle emission behaviour of drum brakes are carried out using an inertia dynamometer (LINK 3900-NVH). To en-sure representative sampling, a constant-volume sampling system is used, which is optimised in terms of transport efficiency and particle distribution. Condensa-tion particle counters (CPC) and filter holders (TX40) are used to determine PN/PM emission factors. CPCs with differently calibrated cut-off are used to evaluate the formation of nanoscale particle formations. In this context, special at-tention is paid to the influence of temperature on the particle formation process. From the comparison between rear-axle disc brake and rear-axle drum brake it could be proven that the predominant part of the wear mass remains within the drum, which affects the size distribution of the emitted particles. The ratio be-tween PM10 and PM2.5 mass-related emissions factors decreases from about 2 (disc brake) to about 1.3 (drum brake). In addition, the emission behaviour is dif-ferentiated via the bedding procedure of the drum brake. To achieve a reproduci-ble emission level, a doubling of the number of cycles (WLTP-brake cycle) is necessary. Due to a higher temperature level, nanoparticles could be detected dur-ing testing of the drum brake, whereby the number-related emission factor (PM2.5) was partly higher than for the disc brake.



Alfonso, Jesus; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Bernad, Carlos; Beliautsou, Viktar; Ivanov, Valentin; Castellanos, Jose Angel;
Geographically distributed real-time co-simulation of electric vehicle. - In: IEEE Xplore digital library, ISSN 2473-2001, (2022), S. 1002-1007

The present paper shows the capabilities of a distributed real-time co-simulation environment merging simulation models and testing facilities for developing and verifying electric vehicles. This environment has been developed in the framework of the XILforEV project and the presented case is focused on a ride control with a real suspension installed on a test bench in Spain, which uses real-time information from a complete vehicle model in Germany. Given the long distance between both sites, it has been necessary to develop a specific delay compensation algorithm. This algorithm is general enough to be used in other real-time co-simulation frameworks. In the present work, the system architecture including the communication compensation is described and successfully experimentally validated.



https://doi.org/10.1109/CoDIT55151.2022.9804062
Fedorova, Aleksandra; Beliautsou, Viktar; Zimmermann, Armin;
Colored Petri net modelling and evaluation of drone inspection methods for distribution networks. - In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, Bd. 22 (2022), 9, 3418, S. 1-20

https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093418
Augsburg, Klaus; Hesse, David; Ricciardi, Vincenzo; Feißel, Toni;
Methoden zur Messung und Prädiktion der Partikelemissionen von Bremse und Reifen. - In: [Hauptband], (2021), S. 185-204

Lehne, Christoph; Ivanov, Valentin; Augsburg, Klaus; Büchner, Florian; Schreiber, Viktor; Herman, Jernej; Pašič, Jure; Zavrl, Blaž;
Distributed local X-in-the-loop environment - a tool for electric vehicle systems design. - In: Zenodo, (2021), insges. 6 S.

The paper describes methodology and corresponding environment for development, validation and testing of complex electric vehicle (EV) systems. The proposed approach is based on distribution of relevant design tasks between remotely working testing equipment with real-time (RT) data sharing and data exchange. The approach is demonstrated by the example of X-in-the-loop (XIL) environment uniting electric motor test setup, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) platform with brake-by-wire system, and the brake dynamometer. The study introduces how this configuration of experimental tools can be used by designing the brake blending and control of an EV.



https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4905931
Armengaud, Eric; Wikström, Niklas; Buh, Joze; Dhaens, Miguel; Gramstat, Sebastian; Groppo, Ricardo; Heydrich, Marius; Ivanov, Valentin; Mazzoni, Matteo; Sorniotti, Aldo;
Advanced electric vehicle components for long-distance daily trips. - In: Zenodo, (2021), insges. 8 S.

This paper introduces a holistic engineering approach for the design of an electric sport utility vehicle focused on the reliable capability of long-distance daily trips. This approach is targeting integration of advanced powertrain and chassis components to achieve energy-efficient driving dynamics through manifold contribution of their improved functions. The powertrain layout of the electric vehicle under discussion is designed for an e-traction axle system including in-wheel motors and the dual inverter. The main elements of the chassis layout are the electro-magnetic suspension and the hybrid brake-by-wire system with electro-hydraulic actuators on the front axle and the electro-mechanical actuators on the rear axle. All the listed powertrain and chassis components are united under an integrated vehicle dynamics and energy management control strategy that is also outlined in the paper. The study is illustrated with the experimental results confirming the achieved high performance on the electric vehicle systems level.



https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4905907
Schreiber, Viktor; Büchner, Florian; Lehne, Christoph; Ivanov, Valentin;
X-in-the-Loop-Ansatz zur Entwicklung von Elektrofahrzeugen. - In: MTZ extra, ISSN 2509-4580, (2021), 8, S. 18-22

Schreiber, Viktor; Ivanov, Valentin;
Optimization using a shared and distributed X-in-the-Loop testing environment. - In: 2021 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), (2021), insges. 6 S.

X-in-the-loop (XIL) technologies have been receiving increased attention in modern automotive development processes. In particular, collaborative experiments using XIL tools have efficient applications in the design of multi-actuated, electric, and automated vehicles. The presented paper introduces results of such a collaborative study with XIL, which focused on the feasibility of coordinated real-time (RT) simulations for the control of vehicle dynamics systems. The outcomes are based on extensive co-simulation tests performed with remote connections among different geographical locations. The performed study allowed formulating requirements for further shared and distributed XIL-experiments for functional validation of automotive control systems.



https://doi.org/10.1109/VPPC53923.2021.9699231