Konzeptentwicklung eines Speckle-Mikroskops zur Untersuchung pathophysiologischer Veränderungen durch humane Autoantikörper gegen den NMDA-Rezeptor. - Ilmenau : Universitätsbibliothek, 2022. - 1 Online-Ressource (VI, 141,  Blätter)
Technische Universität Ilmenau, Dissertation 2022
Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit dem Krankheitsbild der NMDA-Rezeptor Enzephalitis und der Entwicklung neuartiger Technologien, mit dem Ziel weitere tiefgreifende Erkenntnisse im Zusammenhang mit dieser Autoimmunerkrankung zu gewinnen. Im ersten Abschnitt der Arbeit werden für die Untersuchungen etablierte höchstauflösende Fluoreszenz-Mikroskopieverfahren aus dem Bereich der Lokalisationsmikroskopie eingesetzt. Hierbei kommen spezielle rekombinante monoklonale Patienten aAK gegen die NR1-Untereinheit des NMDA-Rezeptors zur Anwendung. Durch die Lokalisationsmikroskopie wird die synaptische Rezeptordichte quantifiziert und somit die Auswirkung der aAK auf die Rezeptormorphologie untersucht. Zusätzlich dazu wurde die Messung mittels Lokalisationsmikroskopie in einen 10 µm coronalen Hirnschnitt einer Maus etabliert. Mit Hilfe der genutzten höchstauflösenden Mikroskopiemethoden konnte auch die Spezifität der rekombinanten monoklonalen Patienten aAK nachgewiesen werden. Der zweite Abschnitt der Arbeit befasst sich mit der Etablierung eines speziellen Mikroskopes der strukturierten Beleuchtungsmikroskopie, welches auf Basis von sogenannten Speckle arbeitet. Es konnte ein kosteneffizienter Aufbau realisiert werden, welcher im Bereich von wenigen Sekunden ein höchstaufgelöstes Bild aufnimmt. Die gezeigte Auflösung war im Bereich von etablierten Verfahren der strukturierten Beleuchtungsmikroskopie. Auf Grundlage des etablierten Mikroskops wurde ein Patent eingereicht und angenommen. Das Patent befasst sich mit der Möglichkeit die effektive Beleuchtungsfläche der Speckle durch die Nutzung von verschiedenen nichtlinearen physikalischen Effekten zu reduzieren. Somit kann der Detektionsbereich verkleinert und im Idealfall in einem Einzelmolekül-Regime genutzt werden. In einem letzten Punkt der Arbeit wird eine neuartige Kombinationsmöglichkeit von funktionellen Messungen in Form von MEA und morphologischen Messungen entwickelt. Das hier gezeigte ultradünne und hochtransparente MEA resultiert in einem Design und einer Materialkombination, so dass es für eine solche Verfahrenskombination eingesetzt werden kann. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass es bei Untersuchungen mit der Lokalisationsbasierten Mikroskopiemethodik zu keinen Einflüssen auf die optischen Ergebnisse kommt und die Oberflächeneigenschaften durch ihre Spezifität Anwendungsvorteile bringen.
Object classification on video data of meteors and meteor-like phenomena: algorithm and data. - In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 1365-2966, Bd. 516 (2022), 1, S. 811-823
Every moment, countless meteoroids enter our atmosphere unseen. The detection and measurement of meteors offer the unique opportunity to gain insights into the composition of our solar systems’ celestial bodies. Researchers therefore carry out a wide-area-sky-monitoring to secure 360-degree video material, saving every single entry of a meteor. Existing machine intelligence cannot accurately recognize events of meteors intersecting the earth’s atmosphere due to a lack of high-quality training data publicly available. This work presents four reusable open source solutions for researchers trained on data we collected due to the lack of available labelled high-quality training data. We refer to the proposed data set as the NightSkyUCP data set, consisting of a balanced set of 10 000 meteor- and 10 000 non-meteor-events. Our solutions apply various machine-learning techniques, namely classification, feature learning, anomaly detection, and extrapolation. For the classification task, a mean accuracy of 99.1 per cent is achieved. The code and data are made public at figshare with DOI 10.6084/m9.figshare.16451625.
Interactive and explorative stream processing. - In: DEBS 2022, (2022), S. 194-197
Formulating a suitable stream processing pipeline for a particular use case is a complicated process that highly depends on the processed data and usually requires many cycles of refinement. By combining the advantages of visual data exploration with the concept of real-time modifiability of a stream processing pipeline we want to contribute an interactive approach that simplifies and enhances the process of pipeline engineering. As a proof of concept, a prototype has been developed that delivers promising results in various test use cases and allows to modify the parameters and structure of stream processing pipelines at a development stage in a matter of milliseconds. By utilizing collected data and statistics from this explorative intermediate stage we will automatically generate optimized runtime code for a standalone execution of the constructed pipeline.
StreamVizzard - an interactive and explorative stream processing editor. - In: DEBS 2022, (2022), S. 186-189
Processing continuous data streams is one of the hot topics of our time. A major challenge is the formulation of a suitable and efficient stream processing pipeline. This process is complicated by long restart times after pipeline modifications and tight dependencies on the actual data to process. To approach these issues, we have developed StreamVizzard - an interactive and explorative stream processing editor to simplify the pipeline engineering process. Our system allows to visually configure, execute, and completely modify a pipeline during runtime without any delay. Furthermore, an adaptive visualizer automatically displays the operator's processed data and statistics in a comprehensible way and allows the user to explore the data and support his design decisions. After the pipeline has been finalized our system automatically optimizes the pipeline based on collected statistics and generates standalone runtime code for productive use at a targeted stream processing engine.
Can communication technologies reduce loneliness and social isolation in older people? : a scoping review of reviews. - In: International journal of environmental research and public health, ISSN 1660-4601, Bd. 19 (2022), 18, 11310, S. 1-20
Background: Loneliness and social isolation in older age are considered major public health concerns and research on technology-based solutions is growing rapidly. This scoping review of reviews aims to summarize the communication technologies (CTs) (review question RQ1), theoretical frameworks (RQ2), study designs (RQ3), and positive effects of technology use (RQ4) present in the research field. Methods: A comprehensive multi-disciplinary, multi-database literature search was conducted. Identified reviews were analyzed according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) framework. A total of N = 28 research reviews that cover 248 primary studies spanning 50 years were included. Results: The majority of the included reviews addressed general internet and computer use (82% each) (RQ1). Of the 28 reviews, only one (4%) worked with a theoretical framework (RQ2) and 26 (93%) covered primary studies with quantitative-experimental designs (RQ3). The positive effects of technology use were shown in 55% of the outcome measures for loneliness and 44% of the outcome measures for social isolation (RQ4). Conclusion: While research reviews show that CTs can reduce loneliness and social isolation in older people, causal evidence is limited and insights on innovative technologies such as augmented reality systems are scarce.
Accuracy assessment of simplified computation of active and passive magnetic shielding for optically pumped magnetometers. - In: IEEE transactions on magnetics, ISSN 1941-0069, Bd. 58 (2022), 9, 7401204, insges. 4 S.
A low residual environmental magnetic field is required for the proper operation of most optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs). This is achieved using a combination of passive and active magnetic shielding. Passive magnetic shielding often uses multiple layers of highly permeable materials. A realistic two-layer magnetically shielded room (MSR) for biomagnetic measurements is numerically studied using the finite element method. A measured B-H characteristic of Mumetal is used, which is linearly extrapolated from the Rayleigh region (RR) into the low magnetic field range. This extension of the magnetization curve yields no significant differences compared to using a constant permeability value for the low magnetic field range. Furthermore, we model the MSR with only one shield and apply a simple analytical method of images (MOI). The MOI yields on average a 100-fold reduction in computation time. The relative difference of the magnetic flux density computed with MOI and finite element method (FEM) is smaller than < 1% at the center of a spherical region of interest (ROI) with a radius of 0.3 m desired from the point of magnetoencephalography (MEG) using OPMs. The achieved accuracy of the MOI makes it suitable for the optimization of active shielding coils.
The potential of multispectral imaging flow cytometry for environmental monitoring. - In: Cytometry, ISSN 1552-4930, Bd. 101 (2022), 9, S. 782-799
Environmental monitoring involves the quantification of microscopic cells and particles such as algae, plant cells, pollen, or fungal spores. Traditional methods using conventional microscopy require expert knowledge, are time-intensive and not well-suited for automated high throughput. Multispectral imaging flow cytometry (MIFC) allows measurement of up to 5000 particles per second from a fluid suspension and can simultaneously capture up to 12 images of every single particle for brightfield and different spectral ranges, with up to 60x magnification. The high throughput of MIFC has high potential for increasing the amount and accuracy of environmental monitoring, such as for plant-pollinator interactions, fossil samples, air, water or food quality that currently rely on manual microscopic methods. Automated recognition of particles and cells is also possible, when MIFC is combined with deep-learning computational techniques. Furthermore, various fluorescence dyes can be used to stain specific parts of the cell to highlight physiological and chemical features including: vitality of pollen or algae, allergen content of individual pollen, surface chemical composition (carbohydrate coating) of cells, DNA- or enzyme-activity staining. Here, we outline the great potential for MIFC in environmental research for a variety of research fields and focal organisms. In addition, we provide best practice recommendations.
Establishing an experimental and simulation interface for online monitoring and modeling of bacterial growth in water distribution systems. - In: Adaptive planning and design in a age of risk and uncertainty, (2022), S. 1123-1131
Water distribution systems (WDSs) function to deliver high-quality water in major quantities. While standard water quality parameters are monitored at waterworks, it is still a challenge to monitor water quality in the WDS network itself. Only hydraulic parameters are frequently monitored and modeled in drinking water networks in Germany. Moreover, the majority of German drinking water utilities does not disinfect when the product leaves the waterworks. This is also common practice in Northern European countries. It is thus important to monitor specific organic and bacteriological water quality parameters which define the system state. This study develops an experimental and simulation integrated framework for continuously monitoring and simulating selected organic and bacteriological water quality parameters, so abnormal deviations in water quality behavior can be detected and responded to in real time. A simple reproducible bacteria regrowth model was taken to initialize the validation of experimental values in a water quality model simulation. Batch experiment measurements from a flow cytometer are analyzed to establish an interface between laboratory values and water quality simulations. Monod kinetics are utilized to describe the bacterial growth rate according to the respective substrate for modeling the bulk species in the water network. Experimental values are incorporated in the simulations for validation. The simulation of bacterial growth is conducted firstly on a network model of a real-life test bed and on various selected distribution system models of different sizes and complexities. First results of the water quality simulations show a successful transition of experimental analysis into water quality simulations and give a promising outlook for developing an online-monitoring and prediction methodology for detecting water quality anomalies efficiently in real time.
Real-time monitoring and controlling of water quality in water distribution networks based on flow cytometry and fluorescence spectroscopy. - In: Adaptive planning and design in a age of risk and uncertainty, (2022), S. 1155-1167
Guaranteeing the high-quality of water in water distribution networks (WDSs) is a priority when it comes to ensuring public health. Since the majority of German water utilities (and also other EU countries) do not chlorinate, controlling of nutrients in WDSs such as assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and monitoring of microbiological activities is indispensable. Conventional methods to characterize microbiological activity and dissolved organic matter are time-consuming and labor-intensive. This study presents data on flow cytometry and fluorescence spectroscopy as leading-edge technologies for real-time analysis of drinking water quality in WDS. Flow cytometry is a sensitive method which can be applied in online modus for accurate detection of bacterial cell numbers. Furthermore, fluorescence spectroscopy is a rapid and quantitative technique for detailed characterization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) including fractions of natural organic matter (NOM). The integration of both techniques is promising for real-time water quality analysis and as a supporting tool for quality control. In the initial step of this research, an experimental laboratory setup of simultaneous analysis is developed. Thus, the goal is to achieve knowledge about possible relations between water quality parameters, more precisely bacterial regrowth potential and the character of dissolved organic constituents. In continuous measurements, the initial state of microbiological growth is to be determined based on flow cytometric data. Due to fluorescence spectroscopy data the microbiological regrowth potential will be predicted. This will be achieved by online detecting of certain organic fractions of the DOC which can be utilized as nutrients by present bacteria. The overall project goal is the establishing of an interface between monitoring parameters and water quality simulation models for the WDSs. First promising results show the successful utilization of adapted AOC as regrowth potential parameter, which can be used for water quality simulations in a WDS.
Optimal control of chlorine concentration in water distribution system. - In: Adaptive planning and design in a age of risk and uncertainty, (2022), S. 1146-1154
Supplying high-quality water is the key task of water distribution systems (WDSs). Although in Germany and some other countries chlorine is no longer used, it remains as a major disinfectant in WDSs worldwide. Therefore, chlorine concentration represents an important parameter for determining the water quality; that is, we should ensure the chlorine concentration within a reasonable range in a WDS. However, due to the complexity of the network structure and nonlinear behavior of the system, the control of chlorine concentration in WDSs imposes a challenging task. In this study, a model-based optimal control strategy is developed to address this problem. The mass and energy conservation laws are used to describe the hydraulic properties of WDSs. The one-dimensional advective transport model is simplified to describe the decay of chlorine in the pipelines. The chlorine concentration limits at the nodes are formulated as inequality constraints which will be satisfied by manipulating the flows and their directions in the pipelines. As a result, a nonlinear optimization problem is formulated and solved to achieve the specified chlorine concentration. For verifying our approach, we deliver the computed results for benchmark networks as input to the simulation model in EPANET, and the simulation gives satisfactory values of the specified chlorine concentration in the network.