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Grätzel, Michael; Other, Sven; Stoll, Benedict; Rohe, Maximilian; Hasieber, Michael; Löhn, Torsten; Hildebrand, Jörg; Bergmann, Jean Pierre; Kátai, András; Breitbarth, Kati; Bös, Joachim;
Investigation of the directional characteristics of the emitted airborne sound by friction stir welding for online process monitoring. - In: 2nd International Conference on Advanced Joining Processes (AJP 2021), (2022), S. 41-56

Currently, destructive or non-destructive testing methods are used to verify the weld seam quality subsequent to the manufacturing process. Therefore, pre-processes such as visible or mechanical testing require additional efforts, which can lead to expensive reworking or rejection of the components. The acoustic process characterization for Friction Stir Welding (FSW) applications permits a comparatively new approach of process monitoring to detect weld seam irregularities by the characterization of the emitted noise in the audible frequency range (airborne sound signal). In previous publications, the acoustic detection of weld seam irregularities was mostly based on structure-borne sound sensors. Although a correlation between weld defects and audio signals has been demonstrated, there are process-related deficits in the use of structure-borne sound sensors. These include a fixed installation position and limited applicability for large-scale components such as battery cases. In contrast airborne sound sensors (microphones) can be mounted directly in the area of the joining process and thus influences of component size, joining materials, and weld seam geometry can be reduced. However, the use of airborne sound sensors for FSW applications requires preparatory considerations on the sensor position towards the joining process (sidely, in front of or behind the processing tool). Therefore, in this study an approach will be presented to evaluate the directional characteristic of the airborne sound emitted by the FSW process. First, the positioning of the microphone for the various welding directions were investigated. This was done to determine a suitable microphone orientation during the process. Then, the general determination of audio signals from the FSW process will be considered and compared to the process force feedback. Further, it was demonstrated that acoustic analysis can be used for detection of weld seam irregularities such as flash formation on 5 mm AA 5754 H111 sheets. All experiments were performed with a robotized FSW setup that was modified by a self-developed acoustic measuring device.

Hasieber, Michael; Kranz, Moritz; Löhn, Torsten; Grätzel, Michael; Zemlicka, Anton; Bergmann, Jean Pierre;
Effect of friction stir welding tool hardness on wear behaviour in friction stir welding of AA-6060 T66. - In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, ISSN 2041-3076, Bd. 236 (2022), 6, S. 1333-1345

Friction stir welding is a solid-state joining process with a wide range of industrial applications in the e-mobility, automotive, aerospace and energy industries. However, friction stir welding is subjected to process-specific challenges, including comparatively high process forces and friction stir welding tool wear resulting from tribological interaction between the tool and workpiece. The geometric-related friction stir welding tool wear can cause varying material flow conditions, lateral path deviations and premature tool failure, with detrimental economic and technological consequences. This study systematically analyses the wear behaviour of friction stir welding tools as a function of tool hardness. To compare and differentiate the geometric-related tool wear as a function of tool hardness, experiments were carried out with a hardness of 240 HV, 410 HV and 580 HV. Whereas 240 HV is non-hardened, 410 HV is 50% of the secondary hardness maximum and 580 HV is the secondary hardness maximum of the tools made of H13 tool steel (hot-working steel, X40CrMoV5-1). During the experimental tests, the shoulder and probe exhibited varying wear and geometrical deviations. The investigations were carried out with a force-controlled robotized welding setup in which AA-6060 T66 sheets with a thickness of 8 mm were joined by weld seams up to a total length of 80 m.
Pecanac, Milan; Labus Zlatanovic, Danka; Kulundzic, Nenad; Dramicanin, Miroslav; Lanc, Zorana; Hadzistevi´c, Miodrag; Radisic, Slobodan; Balos, Sebastian;
Influence of tool and welding parameters on the risk of wormhole defect in aluminum magnesium alloy welded by bobbin tool FSW. - In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Bd. 12 (2022), 6, 969, S. 1-14

Bobbin tool friction stir welding (BTFSW) utilizes a special tool that possesses two shoulders interconnected by a pin instead of one: the top shoulder and the pin in the conventional FSW tool. This greatly simplifies the kinematics in the otherwise complicated setup of FSW since the bottom shoulder forms the bottom surface of the weld, without the need for a backing plate. Moreover, the tool enters the base metal sideways and travels, forming the joint in a straight line while rotating, without the need for downward and upward motion at the beginning and end of the process. This paper presents a study on the BTFSW tool geometry and parameters on the risk of wormhole defect formation in the AA5005 aluminum–magnesium alloy and the wormhole effect on mechanical properties. It was shown that higher stress imposed by the tool geometry on the joint has a significant influence on heating, an effect similar to the increased rotational speed. Optimal kinematic and geometrical tool properties are required to avoid wormhole defects. Although weld tensile strengths were lower (between ˜111 and 115 MPa) compared with a base metal (137 MPa), the ductile fracture was obtained. Furthermore, all welds had a higher impact strength (between ˜20.7 and 27.8 J) compared with the base material (˜18.5 J); it was found that the wormhole defect only marginally influences the mechanical properties of welds.
Walther, Dominik; Schmidt, Leander; Schricker, Klaus; Junger, Christina; Bergmann, Jean Pierre; Notni, Gunther; Mäder, Patrick;
Automatic detection and prediction of discontinuities in laser beam butt welding utilizing deep learning. - In: Journal of advanced joining processes, ISSN 2666-3309, Bd. 6 (2022), 100119, S. 1-11

Laser beam butt welding of thin sheets of high-alloy steel can be really challenging due to the formation of joint gaps, affecting weld seam quality. Industrial approaches rely on massive clamping systems to limit joint gap formation. However, those systems have to be adapted for each individually component geometry, making them very cost-intensive and leading to a limited flexibility. In contrast, jigless welding can be a high flexible alternative to substitute conventionally used clamping systems. Based on the collaboration of different actuators, motions systems or robots, the approach allows an almost free workpiece positioning. As a result, jigless welding gives the possibility for influencing the formation of the joint gap by realizing an active position control. However, the realization of an active position control requires an early and reliable error prediction to counteract the formation of joint gaps during laser beam welding. This paper proposes different approaches to predict the formation of joint gaps and gap induced weld discontinuities in terms of lack of fusion based on optical and tactile sensor data. Our approach achieves 97.4 % accuracy for video-based weld discontinuity detection and a mean absolute error of 0.02 mm to predict the formation of joint gaps based on tactile length measurements by using inductive probes.
Labus Zlatanovic, Danka; Bergmann, Jean Pierre; Balos, Sebastian; Gräzel, Michael; Pejic, Dragan; Sovilj, Platon; Goel, Saurav;
Influence of rotational speed on the electrical and mechanical properties of the friction stir spot welded aluminium alloy sheets. - In: Welding in the world, ISSN 1878-6669, Bd. 66 (2022), 6, S. 1179-1190

An efficient and productive joining technique to weld aluminium has become a priority challenge for promoting the use of aluminium in the electrical industry. One of the challenges is to obtain welds with superior mechanical properties with the consistent quality of weld surface as well as low electrical resistance. In this paper, the influence of rotational speed during the friction stir spot welding of AA 5754-H111 was studied to analyse the mechanical and electrical properties of the welds. The results from two rotational speeds (1000 rpm and 4500 rpm) are presented and compared to the base material. It was observed that the samples welded at 1000 rpm showed a higher average shear failure load (˜ 1.1 kN) compared to the samples welded at 4500 rpm (˜ 0.94 kN). The microhardness of the samples welded at 1000 rpm was higher than that of the base material, while the microhardness of samples welded at 4500 rpm was lower. It was also found that the friction welded sheets, regardless of the rotational speed used, showed increased electrical resistance compared to the base material, albeit this increase for the samples welded at 1000 rpm was about 42%, compared to samples welded at 4500 rpm where this increase was just 14%.
Mir, Amir; Luo, Xichun; Llavori, Iñigo; Roy, Anish; Labus Zlatanovic, Danka; Joshi, Shrikrishna N.; Goel, Saurav;
Challenges and issues in continuum modelling of tribology, wear, cutting and other processes involving high-strain rate plastic deformation of metals. - In: Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials, ISSN 1878-0180, Bd. 130 (2022), 105185, S. 1-24

Contribution of finite element method (FEM) as a modelling and simulation technique to represent complex tribological processes has improved our understanding about various biomaterials. This paper presents a review of the advances in the domain of finite element (FE) modelling for simulating tribology, wear, cutting and other processes involving high-strain rate plastic deformation of metals used in bio tribology and machining. Although the study is largely focused on material removal cases in metals, the modelling strategies can be applied to a wide range of other materials. This study discusses the development of friction models, meshing and remeshing strategies, and constitutive material models. The mesh-based and meshless formulations employed for bio tribological simulations with their advantages and limitations are also discussed. The output solution variables including scratch forces, local temperature, residual stresses are analyzed as a function of input variables.
Paffhausen, Michael;
Rührreibschweißen mit einem Industrieroboter unter Berücksichtigung der Einsatzkriterien für die automobile Großserienfertigung. - Ilmenau : Universitätsverlag Ilmenau, 2022. - 1 Online-Ressource (225 Seiten). - (Fertigungstechnik - aus den Grundlagen für die Anwendung ; Band 13)
Technische Universität Ilmenau, Dissertation 2021

Das Fügeverfahren "Rührreibschweißen" ermöglicht die Herstellung reproduzierbar hochwertiger Schweißverbindungen. Aufgrund der sehr hohen Prozesskräfte werden in der Produktion vorzugsweise Sonder- und Werkzeugmaschinen eingesetzt. In der automobilen Großserienfertigung wird jedoch der Einsatz von Standard-Industrierobotern für das Rührreibschweißen als kostengünstigere und flexiblere Alternative favorisiert. Im Rahmen der Arbeit werden die Leistungskenngrößen des Industrieroboters zunächst ohne Bearbeitungskräfte analysiert. In diesem Zusammenhang werden die Pose- und Bahn-Wiederholgenauigkeit des Industrieroboters an unterschiedlichen Referenzbahnen in der Ebene quantifiziert. Hier ist festzustellen, dass der Roboter den Genauigkeitsanforderungen des Schweißverfahrens genügt. Bei der Analyse der Wechselwirkungen zwischen Prozess und Roboterstruktur wird jedoch deutlich, dass die Arbeitsgenauigkeit des Industrieroboters durch die resultierenden Prozesskräfte beim Rührreib-schweißen signifikant beeinflusst wird; ohne ein "Nachteachen" oder eine Offline-Korrektur der programmierten Soll-Bahn werden die mechanischen Eigenschaften der Fügeverbindung durch die mangelnde Arbeitsgenauigkeit des Industrieroboters negativ beeinflusst. Bei der Analyse kann nachgewiesen werden, dass die Abdrängung des Werkzeugs nicht nur von den resultierenden Prozesskräften abhängt, sondern auch signifikant durch die Richtung des Vektors der Bahngeschwindigkeit beim Bahnschweißen beeinflusst wird. Bei der Analyse der statischen und dynamischen Systemeigenschaften des Roboters wird gezeigt, dass die nichtlinearen Steifigkeiten der Roboterstruktur maßgeblich von den Gelenkstellungen und der Belastungsrichtung abhängen. Aus den Erkenntnissen der Systemanalyse wird eine modellbasierte Offline-Bahnkorrektur, die Nachgiebigkeiten und Wechselwirkungen zwischen Prozess und Roboter berücksichtigt, entwickelt.
Schwarz, Elisabeth Birgit; Bleier, Fabian; Günter, Friedhelm; Mikut, Ralf; Bergmann, Jean Pierre;
Improving process monitoring of ultrasonic metal welding using classical machine learning methods and process-informed time series evaluation. - In: Journal of manufacturing processes, Bd. 77 (2022), S. 54-62

Ultrasonic metal welding (USMW) is an industrially applied joining technology that is highly complex since the weld quality is influenced by numerous factors. The relationships between these factors and the quality remain partly unavailable resulting in a need for improvement in process monitoring and quality management. This work focuses on exploring the relationships between tensile shear strength (TSS) of Cu-sheet welds and process curves from welding machine and additional vibration sensors at sonotrode and anvil. Discovered relationships would enable an improved process monitoring, when valid for a broad parameter range. To ensure the latter, examinations are carried out on a central composite design of experiments (DoE) data set. For the whole data set as well as for single data points, the process curves are examined in detail comprising visualizations and discussions of revealed trends. These trends are related to process physics to clarify their relevance for the TSS. Based on physical process knowledge, more than 700 features are extracted from the curves. The extraction approach is not limited to the present setup and enables a quantitative evaluation of the relation between TSS and process curves. Most important features are derived from the generator power and the anvil vibration. Finally, linear regression as well as multi-layer perceptron regression are used to predict the TSS based on the most relevant features. Comparing the obtained regression results with the reference model, that is the polynomial regression model from standard DoE evaluation, a prediction improvement of nearly 50% is achieved. These results suggest the employed signals as a suited basis for an improved USMW process monitoring.
Seibold, Marc; Schricker, Klaus; Bergmann, Jean Pierre;
Systematic adjustment of the joining time in pulsed laser beam welding of aluminum-copper joints by means of a closed-loop control. - In: Journal of advanced joining processes, ISSN 2666-3309, Bd. 5 (2022), 100104, S. 1-6

Electric mobility has become increasingly important in recent years. For this purpose, the use of copper is essential due to its electrical properties. In order to save weight and costs, copper is replaced by aluminum in many electrical conductors.In this paper, the required joining time for pulsed laser beam welding of aluminum-copper joints is investigated to minimize the mixing of both materials. By using an external controller and photodiodes, it was possible to develop a real-time pulse control laser welding process based on process emissions. The spectral emission was used to detect when the lower joining partner is reached during the deep welding process. The control enables the adjustment of different joining times, on the one hand by a signal drop of the spectral emission, on the other hand by a specific time. The laser pulse was terminated between 500 - 800 [my]s after reaching this event. This led to differences in process conditions, resulting in significant changes in mechanical properties. In this way, a decisive influence was exerted on the resulting joining zone. The interaction duration and the work piece transition are of primary interest. By comparing the results with high-speed recordings in the half-section set-up, the resulting mechanisms can be identified. It could be shown that the breakup time have an high impact for the shear tensile force and the welding depth. A Change in the breakup time of 40 [my]s could lead to high changes in the tensile shear force.
Gester, Andreas; Wagner, Guntram; Pöthig, Pascal; Bergmann, Jean Pierre; Fritzsche, Marco;
Analysis of the oscillation behavior during ultrasonic welding of EN AW-1070 wire strands and EN CW004A terminals. - In: Welding in the world, ISSN 1878-6669, Bd. 66 (2022), 3, S. 567-576

For fulfilling the demand of durable yet lightweight electrical connections in transportation industries, ultrasonic metal welding (USMW) sees widespread use in these branches. As the ultrasound oscillations utilized in the welding procedure occur at a range of only a few micrometers at frequencies of 20-100 kHz for an overall duration of only 50-1500 ms, it is not possible to observe the compaction behavior with the bare eye. This paper focusses on investigating the oscillation behavior of the horn, the anvil, and the joining partners during the welding procedure by utilizing an array of synchronized laser vibrometers and performing welds with incrementing time stages. The oscillation data is correlated with temperature measurements in the welding zone as well as tensile testing results. Inter alia the formation of sidebands at the fundamental frequency as well as 2nd- and 3rd-order harmonics has been observed for the anvil, terminal, and wire front face when exceeding optimal weld time which would lead to maximum joint strength. Following the assumption of other research groups, the cause of these sidebands could be a change in relative motion of these components. As the terminal is slipping with increasing weld time, it could be assumed that the reason for the sidebands is low-frequency movement of the anvil, modulated onto the fundamental frequency, additionally indicating successful bonding of the stranded wire and the terminal. Furthermore, this slipping of the terminal on the anvil could lead to increased wear of the anvil knurls.