New method for evaluating and optimizing transient piston friction and cooling using a high-power laser in motored operation. - In: SAE International journal of engines, ISSN 1946-3944, Bd. 16 (2023), 4, 03-16-04-0025
The input of combustion heat in engines has a major impact on the piston friction and the resulting wear of the piston skirt. The new methodology presented here enables the simulation of combustion heat input during motored operation, and thus a detailed investigation of the piston friction under realistic piston temperature profiles of real engine operation is possible. For this purpose a standardized engine test bench for motored friction evaluations was expanded to include, among other things, a movable high-power diode laser with special defocusing optics. The setup of the test engine is based on the FEV teardown step methodology  and has open access to the engine piston from above due to a cylinder head dummy. Thus, the heat input by means of a high-power diode laser into the piston crown can be made. The reduced engine structure also enables a precise and highly accurate evaluation of the piston friction. A previously conducted validation process of the methodology ensures the most accurate possible replication of fired piston temperature profiles. The comparison between the piston temperatures measured in fired operation and those simulated in motored operation for a partial load operating point shows a maximum variance deviation of only 15˚C depending on the measuring point. The new methodology is also used in particular for the evaluation and detection of critical piston friction conditions. Experiments in this context are presented and discussed exemplary by using three measurement series at different operating temperatures and engine speeds. There is a gradual increase in the laser power for each series of measurements and thus in the heat input into the piston. The increase in heat input leads to a significant increase in friction at all operating points due to thermal expansion and the associated decrease reduction in piston clearance. Depending on the operating temperature and the engine speed, a critical piston friction condition is achieved and detected by the level of friction increase. The additional use of ultrasonic sensors and the knock sensor installed as standard makes a simultaneous measurement of the structure-borne sound signals possible. The increase in the acceleration levels of all sensors correlates here with the increase in piston friction. An evaluation of the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) measurement in both the frequency range and the crank angle (CA) range shows conspicuous high-frequency excitation levels that occur in the top dead center area. This correlation can be proven for all three measurement series. The results obtained here may open a path to an improved piston cooling strategy in the future.
MOCVD surface preparation of V-groove Si for III-V growth. - In: Journal of crystal growth, Bd. 597 (2022), 126843
V-groove nanopatterning of Si substrates has recently demonstrated promise for achieving high-quality III-V-on-Si epitaxy while providing a lower-cost processing route than chemo-mechanical polishing to produce epi-ready planar wafers. A key factor in determining the crystalline quality of III-V buffer layers is the Si surface structure and its chemical composition. Unlike planar Si surfaces, the surfaces of V-grooves prior to growth have not been studied in detail. Here, we study the surface of V-groove Si prepared for GaP nucleation via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. We identify several pretreatments, using both 830˚C and 1000˚C annealing under an As background pressure, as being suitable for deoxidizing and cleaning the V-groove Si surface. The V-groove Si was found to behave similarly to reference Si(0 0 1) and Si(1 1 1) planar samples, demonstrating that in situ techniques such as reflection anisotropy spectroscopy can be used on reference samples to infer the state of the V-groove surface, and indicating that the extensive research on planar Si surfaces can be directly applied to V-grooves.
Combining advanced photoelectron spectroscopy approaches to analyse deeply buried GaP(As)/Si(100) interfaces : Interfacial chemical states and complete band energy diagrams. - In: Applied surface science, Bd. 605 (2022), 154630
The epitaxial growth of the polar GaP(100) on the nonpolar Si(100) substrate suffers from inevitable defects at the antiphase domain boundaries (APDs), resulting from mono-atomic steps on the Si(100) surface. Stabilization of Si(100) substrate surfaces with As is a promising technological step enabling the preparation of Si substrates with double atomic steps and reduced density of the APDs. In this paper, 4-50-nm-thick GaP epitaxial films were grown on As-terminated Si(100) substrates with different types of doping, miscuts, and As-surface termination by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The GaP(As)/Si(100) heterostructures were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) sputtering and by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). We found residuals of As atoms in the GaP lattice (∼0.2-0.3 at.%) and a localization of As atoms at the GaP(As)/Si(100) interface (∼1 at.%). Deconvolution of core level peaks revealed interface core level shifts. In As core levels, chemical shifts between 0.5 and 0.8 eV were measured and identified by angle-resolved XPS measurements. Similar valence band offset (VBO) values of 0.6 eV were obtained, regardless of the doping type of Si substrate, Si substrate miscut or type of As-terminated Si substrate surface. The band alignment diagram of the GaP(As)/Si(1 0 0) heterostructure was deduced.
High optical contrast nanoimprinted speckle patterns for digital image correlation analysis. - In: Micro and nano engineering, ISSN 2590-0072, Bd. 17 (2022), 100164, S. 1-9
For the characterization of the mechanical deformation of materials at microscopic length scales, image processing of a high-quality surface pattern was used. We imprinted speckle patterns onto a thin polymer film attached to the surface of flat and curved metal substrates using flexible molds and soft-thermal nanoimprint lithography. High optical contrast was achieved by mixing black dye into the film generating high absorption in the elevated structures, and by adding titania nanoparticles as fillers to the recessed areas to induce diffuse scattering. For accessing resolution suitable to detect deformation at an individual grain level, the structure sizes were scaled down from 20 μm to 2 μm. For both structure sizes imaging was tested using a digital image correlation setup, that enables 3D imaging of samples with angles of up to 10˚ of inclination.
Conference measurement uncertainty Erfurt 2021 :
Tagung Messunsicherheit Erfurt 2021. - In: Technisches Messen, ISSN 2196-7113, Bd. 89 (2022), 10, S. 645-646
Study of the efficiency of microcantilevers: cases of electrothermal and electromagnetic actuation. - In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1941-0158, Bd. 31 (2022), 5, S. 784-790
In following paper we propose method of energetic description for active microcantilevers. Microelectromechanical devices (MEMS), to which the microcantilevers belong, are becoming part of energy generation and transformation systems. Therefore efficiency of said devices becomes significant parameter. In our approach we described the method to estimate the efficiency based on the measured parameters of a cantilever and it’s effective movement under actuation. We have conducted measurements an calculations for series of cantilevers actuated electrothermally and electromagnetically. Acquired results are in line with predicted properties of examined MEMS’. Method is suited for description of microcantilevers, assessment of utility and comparison in case of common application. [2022-0043]
A droplet-based microfluidic platform enables high-throughput combinatorial optimization of cyanobacterial cultivation. - In: Scientific reports, ISSN 2045-2322, Bd. 12 (2022), 1, 15536, insges. 12 S.
Cyanobacteria are fast-growing, genetically accessible, photoautotrophs. Therefore, they have attracted interest as sustainable production platforms. However, the lack of techniques to systematically optimize cultivation parameters in a high-throughput manner is holding back progress towards industrialization. To overcome this bottleneck, here we introduce a droplet-based microfluidic platform capable of one- (1D) and two-dimension (2D) screening of key parameters in cyanobacterial cultivation. We successfully grew three different unicellular, biotechnologically relevant, cyanobacteria: Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 and Synechococcus sp. UTEX 3154. This was followed by a highly-resolved 1D screening of nitrate, phosphate, carbonate, and salt concentrations. The 1D screening results suggested that nitrate and/or phosphate may be limiting nutrients in standard cultivation media. Finally, we use 2D screening to determine the optimal N:P ratio of BG-11. Application of the improved medium composition in a high-density cultivation setup led to an increase in biomass yield of up to 15.7%. This study demonstrates that droplet-based microfluidics can decrease the volume required for cyanobacterial cultivation and screening up to a thousand times while significantly increasing the multiplexing capacity. Going forward, microfluidics have the potential to play a significant role in the industrial exploitation of cyanobacteria.
Contactless optical and impedimetric sensing for droplet-based dose-response investigations of microorganisms. - In: Sensors and actuators, ISSN 0925-4005, Bd. 372 (2022), 132688
The principle of droplet-based microfluidics was used for the characterization of dose/response functions of the soil bacteria Rhodococcus sp. and Chromobacterium vaccinii using a combination of optical and electrical sensors for the detection of bacterial growth and metabolic activity. For electrical characterization, a micro flow-through impedance module was developed which assessed the response of bacterial populations inside 500 nL fluid segments without direct galvanic contact between the electrodes and the electrolyte. It was found that the impedance sensor can detect an increase in cell density and is particularly suited for monitoring the metabolic response due to changes in the cultivation medium inside the separated fluid segments. Due to this sensitivity, the sensor is useful for investigating growing bacteria or cell cultures in small fluid compartments and obtaining highly resolved dose-response functions by microfluid segment sequences. The impedimetric data agree well with the optical data concerning the characteristic response of bacteria populations in the different concentration regions of heavy metal ions. However, the sensor supplies valuable complementary data on metabolic activity in case of low or negligible cell division rates.
Analysis of an unsteady quasi-capillary channel flow with time-resolved PIV and RBF-based super-resolution. - In: Journal of coatings technology and research, ISSN 1935-3804, (2022), insges. 14 S.
We investigate the interface dynamics in an unsteady quasi-capillary channel flow. The configuration consists of a liquid column that moves along a vertical 2D channel, open to the atmosphere and driven by a controlled pressure head. Both advancing and receding contact lines were analyzed to test the validity of classic models for dynamic wetting and to study the flow field near the interface. The operating conditions are characterized by a large acceleration, thus dominated by inertia. The shape of the moving meniscus was retrieved using Laser-Induced Fluorescence-based image processing, while the flow field near was analyzed via Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV). The TR-PIV measurements were enhanced in the post-processing, using a combination of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Radial Basis Functions to achieve super-resolution of the velocity field. Large counter-rotating vortices were observed, and their evolution was monitored in terms of the maximum intensity of the Q-field. The results show that classic contact angle models based on interface velocity cannot describe the evolution of the contact angle at a macroscopic scale. Moreover, the impact of the interface dynamics on the flow field is considerable and extends to several capillary lengths below the interface.
Elektrochemisches Glätten von Metallen durch ionenleitende Festkörper in schwach leitenden Lösungen. - In: WOMag, ISSN 2195-5891, Bd. 11 (2022), 6, S. 22-24