Journal articles from 2018 to 2021

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Cheng, Pengfei; Wang, Dong
Easily repairable and high-performance carbon nanostructure absorber for solar photothermoelectric conversion and photothermal water evaporation. - In: ACS applied materials & interfaces, ISSN 1944-8252, Bd. 15 (2023), 6, S. 8761-8769

Carbon materials are a category of broadband solar energy harvesting materials that can convert solar energy into heat under irradiation, which can be used for photothermal water evaporation and photothermoelectric power generation. However, destruction of the carbon nanostructure during usage will significantly decrease the light-trapping performance and, thus, limit their practical applications. In this article, an easily repairable carbon nanostructure absorber with full-solar-spectrum absorption and a hierarchically porous structure is prepared. The carbon absorber shows a superhigh light absorption of above 97% across the whole solar spectrum because of multiple scatterings within the carbon nanostructure and photon interaction with the carbon nanoparticles. The excellent light absorption performance directly leads to a good photothermal effect. As a consequence, the carbon absorber integrated with a thermoelectric module can obtain a large power (133.3 μW cm-2) output under 1 sun. In addition, the carbon absorber combined with the sponge can achieve a high photothermal water evaporation efficiency of 83.6% under 1 sun. Its high-efficiency solar-to-electricity and photothermal water evaporation capabilities demonstrate that the carbon absorber with superhigh absorption, simple fabrication, and facile repairability shows great potential for practical fresh water production and electric power generation.
Sauni Camposano, Yesenia H.; Bartsch, Heike; Matthes, Sebastian; Oliva Ramírez, Manuel; Jaekel, Konrad; Schaaf, Peter
Microstructural characterization and self-propagation properties of reactive Al/Ni multilayers deposited onto wavelike surface morphologies: influence on the propagation front velocity. - In: Physica status solidi, ISSN 1521-396X, Bd. 0 (2023), 0, 2200765, S. 1-10

Reactive multilayer systems are nanostructures of great interest for various technological applications because of their high energy release rate during the self-propagating reaction of their components. Therefore, many efforts are aimed at controlling the propagation velocity of these reactions. Herein, reactive multilayer systems of Al/Ni in the shape of free-standing foils with a wavelike surface morphology prepared by using sacrificial substrates with well-aligned waves are presented and the propagation of the reaction along different directions of the reproduced waves is analyzed. During the ignition test, the propagation front is recorded with a high-speed camera, and the maximum temperature is measured using a pyrometer. The propagation of the reaction is favored in the direction of the waves, which points out the influence of the anisotropy generated by this morphology and how it affects the propagation dynamics and the resulting microstructure. Furthermore, compared to their counterparts fabricated on flat substrates, these reactive multilayers with wavelike morphology exhibit a remarkable reduction in the propagation velocity of the reaction of about 50%, without significantly affecting the maximum temperature registered during the reaction.
Wang, Honglei; Jiao, Yunfei; Wu, Bing; Wang, Dong; Hu, Yueqi; Liang, Fei; Shen, Chen; Knauer, Andrea; Ren, Dan; Wang, Hongguang; Aken, Peter Antonie van; Zhang, Hongbin; Sofer, Zdenek; Grätzel, Michael; Schaaf, Peter
Exfoliated 2D layered and nonlayered metal phosphorous trichalcogenides nanosheets as promising electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction. - In: Angewandte Chemie, ISSN 1521-3773, Bd. 0 (2023), 0, e202217253, S. 1-8

Two-dimensional (2D) materials catalysts provide an atomic-scale view on a fascinating arena for understanding the mechanism of electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction (CO2 ECR). Here, we successfully exfoliated both layered and nonlayered ultra-thin metal phosphorous trichalcogenides (MPCh3) nanosheets via wet grinding exfoliation (WGE), and systematically investigated the mechanism of MPCh3 as catalysts for CO2 ECR. Unlike the layered CoPS3 and NiPS3 nanosheets, the active Sn atoms tend to be exposed on the surfaces of nonlayered SnPS3 nanosheets. Correspondingly, the nonlayered SnPS3 nanosheets exhibit clearly improved catalytic activity, showing formic acid selectivity up to 31.6 % with -7.51 mA cm^-2 at -0.65 V vs. RHE. The enhanced catalytic performance can be attributed to the formation of HCOO* via the first proton-electron pair addition on the SnPS3 surface. These results provide a new avenue to understand the novel CO2 ECR mechanism of Sn-based and MPCh3-based catalysts.
Tan, Xinu; Liu, Yushun; Li, Feitao; Qiu, Risheng; Liu, Qing
Formation of nanocrystalline γ-ZrH in Zr-Nb alloy: crystal structure and twinning. - In: Micron, ISSN 1878-4291, Bd. 167 (2023), 103414

In the present work, the lattice parameter and the twins of γ-ZrH hydride in Zr-2.5Nb-1Si were characterized using high resolution electron microscopy. The lattice parameters of γ-ZrH (P42/mmc, Zr2H2 unit cell) is determined to be a= 0.336nm, c=0.508nm. Twinning γ-ZrH hydride ({011}<0̅11> type) is for the first time reported in zirconium alloys, whose orientation relationship with α-Zr is [100]γ-twins // [1̅210]α and (011)γ-twins // (0002)α. The formation process of γ-ZrH twins is also discussed based on a ‘grow-in’ mechanism during the transformation from α-Zr to γ-ZrH hydride.
Hähnlein, Bernd; Honig, Hauke; Schaaf, Peter; Krischok, Stefan; Tonisch, Katja
Effect of poly-crystallinity on the magnetoelectric behavior of TiN/AlN/Ni MEMS cantilevers investigated by finite element methods. - In: Physica status solidi, ISSN 1521-396X, Bd. 0 (2023), 0, 2200839, S. 1-6

Herein, magnetoelectric microelectromechanical system (MEMS) cantilevers are investigated on basis of a TiN/AlN/Ni laminate derived from experimental sensors using finite-element simulations. With the anisotropic ΔE effect as an implication of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the lateral sensitivity of the sensor is studied for different nickel layer thicknesses and boundary conditions. It is found that above 60% of the cantilever length, the nickel is effectively not contributing to the sensor sensitivity anymore which is supported by the investigation of sensors with partial nickel coverage. The boundary condition of the magnetostrictive layer is found to affect the sensitivity of thick layers while it is negligible for thinning layers. Further investigations on basis of polycrystalline untextured nickel with slightly preferred orientations reveal a stronger effect on thin layers than on thicker ones. It is found to arise from relatively large crystals in the high-sensitivity region near the clamping of the sensor. For thicker polycrystalline layers, the ΔE effect reproduces a characteristic based mainly on the (110) and (111) orientations while the (100) orientation appears to be underrepresented.
Glaser, Marcus; Matthes, Sebastian; Hildebrand, Jörg; Bergmann, Jean Pierre; Schaaf, Peter
Hybrid thermoplastic-metal joining based on Al/Ni multilayer foils - analysis of the joining zone. - In: Materials and design, ISSN 1873-4197, Bd. 226 (2023), 111561, insges. 16 S.

Multi material pairings like metal-plastic hybrid compounds are becoming increasingly important across all industrial sectors. However, the substitution of metals by plastics leads to a multitude of challenges based on the combination of dissimilar materials. The variations in the chemical and physical properties of the used materials require innovative joining processes. The application of reactive multilayers represents an advanced joining method for flexible and low-distortion joining of dissimilar joining partners by means of a short-term and localized application of thermal energy. In the context of this publication, the joining process between semi-crystalline polyamide 6 and austenitic stainless steel X5CrNi18-10(EN 1.4301 / AlSI304) based on reactive Al/Ni multilayers is investigated. In addition to evaluation of resulting joint strength, the focus of the work is in particular the characterization of the resulting failure behavior at the fracture interface under tensile load and the deriving binding mechanisms in the joint. From the results obtained, it is estimated that a direct bond can be generated between plastic and metal despite the presence of a residual reacted foil in the joining area. The structures present in the metal surface have a particularly positive influence on crack initiation and the resulting increased bond strength.
Cheng, Pengfei; Döll, Joachim; Romanus, Henry; Wang, Hongguang; Aken, Peter Antonie van; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter
Reactive magnetron sputtering of large-scale 3D aluminum-based plasmonic nanostructure for both light-induced thermal imaging and photo-thermoelectric conversion. - In: Advanced optical materials, ISSN 2195-1071, Bd. 11 (2023), 6, 2202664, S. 1-7

Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted tremendous interest due to their special capability to trap light, which is of great significance for many applications such as solar steam generation and desalination, electric power generation, photodetection, sensing, catalysis, cancer therapy, and photoacoustic imaging. However, the noble metal-based (Au, Ag, Pd) plasmonic nanostructures with expensive costs and limitations to large-scale fabrication restrict their practical applications. Here, a novel and noble-metal-free Al/AlN plasmonic nanostructure fabricated by a reactive magnetron sputtering at the elevated temperature of 200 &ring;C is presented. The unique 3D Al/AlN plasmonic nanostructures show a highly efficient (96.8%) and broadband (full solar spectrum) absorption and a strong photothermal conversion effect on its surface, demonstrating the potential in applications in light-induced thermal imaging and photo-thermoelectric power generation. This simple fabrication method and the developed Al/AlN plasmonic nanostructure combine excellent light trapping performance, abundant and low-cost Al and N elements, good heat localization effect, and scalable fabrication method, suggesting a promising alternative to noble-metal plasmonic nanostructures for photonic applications.
Li, Feitao; Tan, Xinu; Flock, Dominik; Qiu, Risheng; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter
Formation of CuO whiskers and facet-controlled oxidation during the oxidation of Au-Cu nanoparticles fabricated by solid-state dewetting. - In: Applied surface science, Bd. 610 (2023), 155547

The fabrication of cupric oxide (CuO) nanowires from Cu particles via thermal oxidation provides a simple and scalable method to produce hierarchical structures. A stress-induced growth mechanism is believed to account for the nanowire formation while a slow oxidation rate is favored to sustain the driving force. Here, CuO whiskers are grown from Au-Cu nanoparticles because the formation of Au-Cu phases decreases the Cu diffusion rate and in turn slows down the oxidation rate. The driving force for the whisker growth is attributed to the compressive stress imposed by the CuO shell on the Au-Cu core, which is induced by the significantdifference in their linear thermal expansion coefficients. The contribution of the compressive stress is proved by the calculation. Moreover, preferred oxidation is observed and it is related to the crystalline structures of different facets existing on the surface of Au-Cu nanoparticles. The more compact the plane, the slower the diffusion rate through the plane, resulting in the formation of thinner CuO on the relevant facet. The results open a cost-effect way to fabricate hybrid nanostructures consisting of Cu-based core-shell nanoparticles attached with CuO whiskers and bring new insights into the oxidation behaviors of Cu on different crystal planes.
Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur P.; Mokhles Gerami, Adeleh; Masenda, Hilary; Ólafsson, Sveinn; Adhikari, Rajdeep; Johnston, Karl; Naicker, Kimara; Peters, Gerrard; Schell, Juliana; Zyabkin, Dmitry; Bharuth-Ram, Krish; Krastev, Petko; Mantovan, Roberto; Naidoo, Deena; Unzueta, Iraultza
Charge and spin state of dilute Fe in NaCl and LiF. - In: Physical review, ISSN 2469-9969, Bd. 106 (2022), 17, S. 174108-1-174108-10

There is an apparent mismatch between electron paramagnetic resonance and Mössbauer spectroscopy results on the charge and spin states of dilute Fe impurities in NaCl; Mössbauer spectroscopy data have been interpreted in terms of high-spin Fe2+, while electron paramagnetic resonance studies suggest low-spin Fe1+. In the present study, the charge and spin states of dilute substitutional Fe impurities in NaCl and LiF have been investigated with 57Mn&flech;57Fe emission Mössbauer spectroscopy. A scheme is proposed which takes into account the effects of nearest-neighbor distances and electronegativity difference of the host atoms on the Mössbauer isomer shift and allows for the unequivocal differentiation between high-spin Fe2+ and high/low-spin Fe1+ in Mössbauer spectroscopy. From these considerations, the Mössbauer results are found to be consistent with dilute Fe impurities in NaCl and LiF in a low-spin Fe1+ state. These conclusions are supported by theoretical calculations of isomer shifts and formation energies based on the density-functional theory. The experimental results furthermore suggest that charge compensation of dilute Mn2+ dopants in NaCl and LiF is achieved by Na vacancies and F− interstitials, respectively.
Liang, Zhengchen; Wang, Dong; Ziegler, Mario; Hübner, Uwe; Xie, Peng; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Wei
Coupling-induced tunable broadband superradiance in 2D metal-dielectric-metal nanocavity arrays. - In: Laser & photonics reviews, ISSN 1863-8899, Bd. 16 (2022), 11, 2200393, S. 1-8

Subradiance/superradiance, cooperative effects causing suppressed/enhanced radiative decay, are of particular interest in plasmonic systems as they play a very important role in modulating dampings and optical properties of resonant systems. However, subradiance/superradiance are generally limited in narrow spectral range with inaccessible tunability. Realizing broadband subradiant and superradiant plasmon modes with flexible tuning is still challenging. Here, a 2D periodic multilayer metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) nanostructure is rationally designed and fabricated to realize a tunable superradiant mode over a broad visible range. Angle-resolved spectroscopy combined with full quantum calculations reveal a sufficient hybridization of delocalized guided plasmons with localized plasmons and a plasmonic cavity mode, leading to an emissive superradiant hybrid mode over a broadband visible range, which can be readily tuned by controlling the spectral three-mode overlap. Greatly shortened polariton lifetimes down to 4 fs are achieved as direct consequence of the Rabi phases and considerable incoherent coupling strengths between interacting subsystems. Such a control of plasmon damping by cooperative mode interactions paves the way toward efficient manipulation of light emission for applications requiring bright, fast-emitting photon sources.