Journal Articles and Reviews Electronic Measurements and Signal ProcessingJournal Articles and Reviews Electronic Measurements and Signal Processing

Journal Articles and Reviews

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Gedschold, Jonas; Semper, Sebastian; Thomä, Reiner; Döbereiner, Michael; Del Galdo, Giovanni
Dynamic delay-dispersive UWB-radar targets: modeling and estimation. - In: IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation, ISSN 1558-2221, Bd. 71 (2023), 8, S. 6814-6829

This publication proposes a parametric data model and a gradient-based maximum likelihood estimator suitable for the description of delay-dispersive responses of multiple dynamic ultrawideband (UWB)-radar targets. The target responses are estimated jointly with the global target parameters range and velocity. The large relative bandwidth of UWB has consequences for model-based parameter estimation. On the one hand, the Doppler effect leads to a dispersive response in the Doppler spectrum and to a coupling of the target parameters that both need to be considered during modeling and estimation. On the other hand, the shape of an extended target results in a dispersive response in range, which can be resolved by the radar resolution. We consider this extended response as a parameter of interest, e.g., for the purpose of target recognition. Hence, we propose an efficient description and estimation of it by a finite impulse response (FIR) structure only imposing a restriction on the target’s dispersiveness in range. We evaluate the approach on simulations, compare it to state-of-the-art solutions, and provide a validation of the FIR model on measurements of a static scenario.
Semper, Sebastian; Döbereiner, Michael; Steinmetz, Christian; Landmann, Markus; Thomä, Reiner
High-resolution parameter estimation for wideband radio channel sounding. - In: IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation, ISSN 1558-2221, Bd. 71 (2023), 8, S. 6728-6743

Multidimensional channel sounding measures the geometrical structure of mobile radio propagation. The parameters of a multipath data model in terms of directions, time-of-flight, and Doppler shift are estimated from observations in frequency, time, and space. A maximum likelihood estimation framework allows joint high resolution in all dimensions. The prerequisite for this is an appropriate parametric data model that represents the multipath propagation correctly. At the same time, a device data model is necessary that typically results from calibration measurements. The used model should be as simple as possible, since its structure has a considerable effect on the estimation effort. For instance, the inherent effort in parameter search is reduced if the influence of the parameters is kept independent. Therefore, the data model is characterized by several approximations. The most important is the “narrowband assumption,” which assumes a low relative bandwidth and also avoids considering any frequency response in magnitude and phase. We extend the well-known multidimensional Richter maximization approach (RIMAX) parameter estimation framework by including proper frequency responses. The advantage reveals itself with high bandwidth in the mmWave and sub-THz range. It allows for a more realistic modeling of antenna arrays, and it breaks with the usual narrowband model and allows a better modeling of mutual coupling and time delay effects. If the interacting object extends over several delay bins (hence, an extended target in radar terminology), we propose a model that assigns a short delay spread and a frequency response to the propagation path that associates it with the respective object. We verify the validity of the device model by numerical experiments on simulated and measured antenna data and compare it with RIMAX. In addition, we use synthetic data based on ray-tracing results and measurements both ranging from 27.0 to 33 GHz with known ground-truth information and show that the proposed estimator delivers better performance for higher relative bandwidths than the conventional RIMAX implementation.
Wegner, Tim Erich; Gebhardt, Stefan; Del Galdo, Giovanni
Fill level measurement of low-permittivity material using an M-sequence UWB radar. - In: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, (2023), S. 1-9

Due to increasingly complex and automated manufacturing processes, the demands on the control parameters of these processes are also increasing. One parameter is the fill quantity of, e.g., liquids in production plants, whose precise determination is of ever-growing importance. Up to now, the exact level of determination under difficult conditions, such as high ambient temperatures, has been a particular challenge. This paper demonstrates a novel method by which an M-sequence UWB radar can determine levels of low-permittivity materials in small metal containers. For this purpose, hot melt is used as an example. Thus, the influence of large temperature differences on the long-term stability of level measurement can also be investigated. The measurements show that the level of hot melt can be measured to be long-term stable with an accuracy of better than 3 mm. Furthermore, the precise determination of the empty state is highly important for many applications. For this reason, this paper shows a method for determining the empty state without complex calibration procedures. For the empty level indication, an accuracy of up to 0.5 mm could be achieved for molten hot glue and 3% of the tank volume, independent of the shape or aggregate state of the medium.
Sayeed, Akbar; Guven, Damla; Döbereiner, Michael; Semper, Sebastian; Gentile, Camillo; Bodi, Anuraag; Cheng, Zihang
A framework for developing and evaluating algorithms for estimating multipath propagation parameters from channel sounder measurements. - In: IEEE transactions on wireless communications, Bd. 0 (2023), 0, S. 1-16

A framework is proposed for developing and evaluating algorithms for extracting multipath propagation components (MPCs) from measurements collected by channel sounders at millimeter-wave frequencies. Sounders equipped with an omni-directional transmitter and a receiver with a uniform planar array (UPA) are considered. An accurate mathematical model is developed for the spatial frequency response of the sounder that incorporates the non-ideal cross-polar beampatterns for the UPA elements. Due to the limited Field-of-View (FoV) of each element, the model is extended to accommodate multi-FoV measurements in distinct azimuth directions. A beamspace representation of the spatial frequency response is leveraged to develop three progressively complex algorithms aimed at solving the single-snapshot maximum likelihood estimation problem: greedy matching pursuit (CLEAN), space-alternative generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE), and RiMAX. The first two are based on purely specular MPCs whereas RiMAX also accommodates diffuse MPCs. Two approaches for performance evaluation are proposed, one with knowledge of ground truth parameters, and one based on reconstruction mean-squared error. The three algorithms are compared through a demanding channel model with hundreds of MPCs and through real measurements. The results demonstrate that CLEAN gives quite reasonable estimates which are improved by SAGE and RiMAX. Lessons learned and directions for future research are discussed.
Chamaani, Somayyeh; Sachs, Jürgen; Prokhorova, Alexandra; Smeenk, Carsten; Wegner, Tim Erich; Helbig, Marko
Microwave angiography by ultra-wideband sounding: a preliminary investigation. - In: Diagnostics, ISSN 2075-4418, Bd. 13 (2023), 18, 2950, S. 1-17

Angiography is a very informative method for physicians such as cardiologists, neurologists and neuroscientists. The current modalities experience some shortages, e.g., ultrasound is very operator dependent. The computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) angiography are very expensive and near infrared spectroscopy cannot capture the deep arteries. Microwave technology has the potential to address some of these issues while compromising between operator dependency, cost, speed, penetration depth and resolution. This paper studies the feasibility of microwave signals for monitoring of arteries. To this aim, a homogenous phantom mimicking body tissue is built. Four elastic tubes simulate arteries and a mechanical system creates pulsations in these arteries. A multiple input multiple output (MIMO) array of ultra-wideband (UWB) transmitters and receivers illuminates the phantom and captures the reflected signals over the desired observation time period. Since we are only interested in the imaging of dynamic parts, i.e., arteries, the static clutters can be suppressed easily by background subtraction method. To obtain a fast image of arteries, which are pulsating with the heartbeat rate, we calculate the Fourier transform of each channel of the MIMO system over the observation time and apply delay and sum (DAS) beamforming method on the heartbeat rate aligned spectral component. The results show that the lateral and longitudinal images and motion mode (M-mode) time series of different points of phantom have the potential to be used for diagnosis.
Bräunlich, Niklas; Wagner, Christoph; Sachs, Jürgen; Del Galdo, Giovanni
Configurable pseudo noise radar imaging system enabling synchronous MIMO channel extension. - In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, Bd. 23 (2023), 5, 2454, insges. 27 S.

In this article, we propose an evolved system design approach to ultra-wideband (UWB) radar based on pseudo-random noise (PRN) sequences, the key features of which are its user-adaptability to meet the demands provided by desired microwave imaging applications and its multichannel scalability. In light of providing a fully synchronized multichannel radar imaging system for short-range imaging as mine detection, non-destructive testing (NDT) or medical imaging, the advanced system architecture is presented with a special focus put on the implemented synchronization mechanism and clocking scheme. The core of the targeted adaptivity is provided by means of hardware, such as variable clock generators and dividers as well as programmable PRN generators. In addition to adaptive hardware, the customization of signal processing is feasible within an extensive open-source framework using the Red Pitaya® data acquisition platform. A system benchmark in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), jitter, and synchronization stability is conducted to determine the achievable performance of the prototype system put into practice. Furthermore, an outlook on the planned future development and performance improvement is provided.
Varatharaajan, Sutharshun; Großmann, Marcus; Del Galdo, Giovanni
5G new radio physical downlink control channel reliability enhancements for multiple transmission-reception-point communications. - In: IEEE access, ISSN 2169-3536, Bd. 10 (2022), S. 97394-97407

Non-coherent transmission from multiple transmission-reception-points (TRPs), i.e., base stations, or base station panels to a user equipment (UE) is exploited in 5G New Radio (NR) to improve downlink reliability and cell-edge throughput. Ultra reliable low-latency communications (URLLC) and enhanced Mobile BroadBand (eMBB) are prominent target use-cases for multi-TRP or multi-panel transmissions. In Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 17 specifications, multi-TRP-based transmissions were specified for the physical downlink control channel (PDCCH) specifically to enhance its reliability and robustness. In this work, a comprehensive account of various multi-TRP reliability enhancement schemes applicable for the 5G NR PDCCH, including the ones supported by the 3GPP Release 17 specifications, is provided. The impact of the specifications for each scheme, UE and network complexity and their utility in various use-cases is studied. Their error performances are evaluated via link-level simulations using the evaluation criteria agreed in the 3GPP proceedings. The 3GPP-supported multi-TRP PDCCH repetition schemes, and the additionally proposed PDCCH repetition and diversity schemes are shown to be effective in improving 5G NR PDCCH reliability and combating link blockage in mmWave scenarios. The link-level simulations also provide insights for the implementation of the decoding schemes for the PDCCH enhancements under different channel conditions. Analysis of the performance, complexity and implementation constraints of the proposed PDCCH transmission schemes indicate their suitability to UEs with reduced-capability or stricter memory constraints and flexible network scheduling.
Grundhöfer, Lars; Wirsing, Markus; Gewies, Stefan; Del Galdo, Giovanni
Phase estimation of single tones next to modulated signals in the medium frequency R-mode system. - In: IEEE access, ISSN 2169-3536, Bd. 10 (2022), S. 73309-73316

Position, navigation, and timing information are critical to today’s infrastructures; as a result, the possibility of estimating ranges is being explored in more and more radio systems. One way to achieve this is to extend the modulation with time-synchronised aiding carriers and to estimate their phase at the receiver side. In this paper, we present two ways to minimise the negative influence of the modulation on the phase estimation. We show that the classical maximum likelihood estimator is still an efficient estimator for our problem, using a medium-frequency R-Mode signal as an example, and is therefore used in receiver designs. We then describe two possible ways to precondition the signal to increase the accuracy for short observations. As a first approach, we describe how window functions can positively change the signal-to-noise ratio for our estimation. As a second approach, we show the use of a narrowband bandpass filter. Finally, we show that these approaches, applied to real measurements, improve the variance of the estimate by up to two orders of magnitude.
Soleymani, Dariush M.; Gholamian, Mohammad Reza; Del Galdo, Giovanni; Mückenheim, Jens; Mitschele-Thiel, Andreas
Open sub-granting radio resources in overlay D2D-based V2V communications. - In: EURASIP journal on wireless communications and networking, ISSN 1687-1499, Bd. 2022 (2022), 46, S. 1-29
Richtiger Name des Verfassers: Dariush Mohammad Soleymani

Capacity, reliability, and latency are seen as key requirements of new emerging applications, namely vehicle-to-everything (V2X) and machine-type communication in future cellular networks. D2D communication is envisaged to be the enabler to accomplish the requirements for the applications as mentioned earlier. Due to the scarcity of radio resources, a hierarchical radio resource allocation, namely the sub-granting scheme, has been considered for the overlay D2D communication. In this paper, we investigate the assignment of underutilized radio resources from  D2D communication to device-to-infrastructure communication, which are moving in a dynamic environment. The sub-granting assignment problem is cast as a maximization problem of the uplink cell throughput. Firstly, we evaluate the sub-granting signaling overhead due to mobility in a centralized sub-granting resource algorithm, dedicated sub-granting radio resource (DSGRR), and then a distributed heuristics algorithm, open sub-granting radio resource (OSGRR), is proposed and compared with the DSGRR algorithm and no sub-granting case. Simulation results show improved cell throughput for the OSGRR compared with other algorithms. Besides, it is observed that the overhead incurred by the OSGRR is less than the DSGRR while the achieved cell throughput is yet close to the maximum achievable uplink cell throughput.
Häfner, Stephan; Dürr, André; Waldschmidt, Christian; Thomä, Reiner
A novel covariance model for MIMO sensing systems and its identification from measurements. - In: Signal processing, Bd. 197 (2022), 108542

A novel model for the covariance matrix of sampled observations by multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) sensing systems with parallel receiver channels will be presented. The model is of shifted Kronecker structure and accounts for two mutually independent noise processes: a coloured and a white one. The maximum-likelihood (ML) estimator is applied to identify this covariance model from observations. The ML estimator gives rise to a non-convex optimisation problem. Since no closed-form solution is available, an iterative, space-alternating Gauss-Newton algorithm is proposed to solve the optimisation problem. This approach repeatedly requires the evaluation of the ML cost function. Since the cost function composes of the inverse and determinant of the covariance matrix, its evaluation can be memory exhaustive, numerically unstable and computationally complex. A computational method is developed to overcome these issues, using the simultaneous matrix diagonalisation and exploiting the properties of the Kronecker product. Measurements by a MIMO radar are used to identify the covariance model and to demonstrate its benefits. The identified covariance model is used to whiten the measurements. The whitening reduces interfering, noise-like components, which enhances the signal-to-interference ratio and hence facilitates the target detection.